Dogs Communicate Through Facial Expressions
Study Finds Dogs Communicate Using Facial Expressions
Who can resist those sweet puppy-dog eyes? Researchers at the University of Portsmouth in the United Kingdom have been studying the expressive responses on the faces of dogs in relation to human interaction.
Researchers believe that they have found solid evidence that domestic dogs move their faces more when they are in direct contact with their humans. The facial expression dogs use around humans reveals a strong likelihood that their expressions are used for communication.
Dr. Juliane Kaminski, along with her associates, collected data in their study that involved a mix of 24 male and female domestic dogs of various breeds. The study involved the usage of a scientific expression coding system called DogFACS.
Puppy-dog eyes were the most commonly viewed expressions in a DogFACS study. Perhaps dogs know that they can tug at a human's heart using those sweet expressions? Studies indicate that this is a real possibility.
Dog Facial Action Coding System
The scientific method of measuring the facial action of dogs is called the "Dog Facial Action Coding System" or DogFACS.
The system was originally called, FACS, and was created in 1978 by Ekman and Fresen. The Facial Action Coding System was used for several years to study human expressions. Scientists adapted the system so that it would code the expressions and facial movements of animals such as chimpanzees. The latest adjustments to the original FACS, as it was used in this particular study, measured the expressions of dogs in a way that it would be completely objective and accurate.
DogFACS does not detect emotions. Although, most dog owners would agree that their pets demonstrate emotions through their facial expressions, the DogFACS system allowed scientists to code the unitary facial movements of dogs in detail without presumptions involving emotions. By avoiding the emotional elements tied to a dog's facial expressions within the study, biases are removed that allow for more accurate readings of the expressions that dogs make while either in or out of the presence of a human being.
DogFACS Study Results
According to Dr. Kaminski,
We can now be confident that the production of facial expressions made by dogs are dependent on the attention state of their audience and are not just a result of dogs being excited.
The results of the study showed that dogs use far more facial expressions in the presence of a person or people. The expressions were not the result of simply being excited. The same dogs, when shown treats, demonstrated far less facial, eye, and muscle movements.
When someone was directly looking at the dogs, their faces were far more expressive than when people turned their backs or were not within the visual proximity of the dogs.
The final results support evidence that dogs are sensitive to people and that expressions are active attempts to communicate with them.
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