Why Is My Dog Scared of Going Outside?
What's So Scary About Going Outside?
There may appear to be nothing scary in a yard from a human's perspective, but things may look very different to a dog. With noses containing more than 220 million olfactory receptors (humans have only a mere 5 million) and powerful ears capable of detecting sounds in the ultrasonic range, dogs are much more attentive to their environment than humans. So, as humans, we may be missing all the multi-sensorial stimulation dogs are exposed to. A few examples of what dogs may find to be scary in the yard include, but are not limited to, the list below.
Things Dogs Are Afraid of Outside
- The neighbor's dogs barking
- Your slippery floor before going outside
- The stairs that lead to the yard
- Distant sounds that you may not hear
- Fear of the unknown and new places
- Fear of windy conditions, rain, and thunderstorms
In many cases, the fear is unfounded and may stem from a lack of socialization and fear of the unknown. In other cases, the fear is known, such as when the dog runs back in at the sight of something it fears or as soon as a scary noise is perceived. In any case, the message is clear: the dog does not feel safe at all outdoors.
What Not to Do When a Dog Is Afraid of the Outdoors
If your dog is reluctant to go outside or is simply terrified, it is important that you take the right approach to training. There are however, certain techniques that, while effective with other humans, may make the dog's behavior worse.
Don't Flood the Dog
To "flood" a dog means to force the animal to face its fears in the hope of overcoming them. While flooding is a form of behavior therapy, it comes with substantial risks, and there are not many guarantees it will work. Tossing a child who's afraid of water into a pool fears water into a pool may make that child more afraid—and it's the same with a dog. While flooding may yield fast results when it works, it is also more traumatic and less effective.
In the case of dealing with a dog fearful of the outdoors, flooding would entail taking the dog outdoors and blocking the escape route so the dog is forced to face its fear. However, unlike humans who can rationally talk themselves out of a fear, dogs panic until their brains shut down. In such a state, the dog's cognitive functions (ability to learn) are impaired and there is no room for learning. There are better methods and we will see them below.
Whatever your dog does, never punish him for being fearful. Doing so is totally counter-productive. Last year, there was a dog who was terrified of walking on slippery floors. When I asked the owner what he had done so far to help the dog overcome his fears, he told me he used to scold the dog for being fearful. When the dog ran over the shiny surface and slipped on the floor he used to tell him "bad boy"! No wonder this dog was terrified! Dealing with fear and then having an owner scold on top of that created the perfect concoction for terror!
Don't Carry the Dog Outside
Some dog owners may feel compelled to carry the dog outdoors if their dog is not too keen on visiting the yard. But doing so doesn't teach the dog a thing. In order for a dog to learn and overcome its fears, he must go out the yard on its own. If you carry your dog outdoors, you are causing two big problems:
- Your dog may become reluctant to be carried because he starts associating it with being taken out the yard.
- The dog is then placed in the yard, which is a scary event that may cause more fear and stress.
How to Help a Dog Who's Afraid of Going Outside
Your dog's fear of the outside may manifest in many ways. It may start as a simple reluctance to go outside accompanied by fearful body language (tail between legs, ears back, head carried low, uncertain gait). Then one day your dog may decide to put on its brakes and will not budge. What to do? As seen, pushing the dog outside and or scolding him will only make matters worse. Here are some tips to make the great outdoors an appealing place to be without overwhelming the dog.
Desensitization is a form behavioral therapy that is the opposite of flooding. Instead of forcing the dog to face its fears, which may be traumatic, the dog is exposed gradually to keep its anxiety and fear below the fear threshold. The threshold is an invisible line that separates fearful reactions from non-fearful reactions—or at least reactions where the dog is under better control. Often what makes the difference is distance. Therefore, if the dog is carried outside and put in the middle of the yard, he will certainly be over the threshold, causing him to panic, whereas, if the dog is placed in front of the opened door that leads to the yard, the dog would feel more relaxed and would be under the threshold.
Through a process of desensitization, the dog is gradually exposed to the yard and its noises. This process takes quite some time and much care must be taken to make sure the dog stays below his threshold level. Dog owners must be able to recognize early warning signs of stress so as to make sure they're not asking for too much at once. If the stimuli the dog is exposed to is too intense, the dog may become increasingly sensitized to his fear. So, for example, you would take care to not practice desensitization when your neighbor is outside using a chain saw.
Threshold levels vary from one dog to another.
While desensitization is a powerful behavior modification program on its own, adding counter-conditioning on top of it, will double the effectiveness. Counter-conditioning means changing a dog's physical and emotional response to a particular stimulus. If your dog does not like the outdoors, he may have been conditioned to act fearfully. In counterconditioning we are changing the dog's emotional response and attitude towards the outdoors, flipping it upside down. In other words, we want to change the negative associations and create positive ones. So if yard=fear, we want to shift it to yard=fun! No need to worry, dogs do not need a math degree to understand this equation!
We will see desensitization and counterconditioning at play in the steps below.
Tips for Making Your Dog Love the Yard
The following tips are a mix of desensitization and counterconditioning meant to help your dog overcome his fears. If your dog does not show signs of improvement in the first week or two, or if the behavior worsens, consider consulting with a veterinary behaviorist or certified applied animal behaviorist (CAAB).
Items Needed to Train Your Dog to Go Outside
- High-value treats
- Food bowl
- Tape recorder
- Access to outdoors
Exercise 1: Outdoor Noises Are Great!
- Identify what makes your dog fearful. If you know your dog runs for cover the moment he hears a noise, try to replicate that noise. It would be a good idea to record the noise and then play it at a low volume (desensitization).
- Add some counter-conditioning. To make this process more effective, try to feed your dog while the recording is playing or give tasty treats every time you push the "play" button and the recording starts (counterconditioning). Do this until your dog starts looking at you for a treat the moment it hears the recording of the noise.
Make sure you give the treats when the noise is playing and put them away when you stop the recording. It must be crystal clear to your dog that the noise is what brings the treats out and when the noise ends, the treats end too!
- Ramp up the desensitization and counter-conditioning. Open the yard door and do the same exercise, only instead of using the recording as a prompt for treats, you use the actual noises to give treats.
Keep your dog inside with you at first, at a distance from the door where the dog won't be overwhelmed by fear. As soon as you hear a noise, toss a treat. You can even put the noise on cue after a bit, for instance, you can say something like "good noise!" With time, the noises will become a friendly reminder to get a treat and the dog should start being desensitized.
Continue the exercise outdoors if you can get your dog to come out. Below are ways to train your dog to love the outdoors.
Exercise 2: Feeding Station
A good way to make the outdoors less intimidating is to put the food bowl near the door and then gradually move it outside.
- Start feeding next to the door when the door is closed (if your dog is uncomfortable, feed a few feet away from the door).
- Feed a few feet away from the door, but this time with the door open.
- Feed closer to the door with door open. Keep moving the bowl closer as your dog adjusts.
- Feed with the food bowl facing the outside but with your dog still inside.
- Gradually move the bowl farther and farther outside.
If your dog will not take food, you are working over the threshold. A dog's ability to take food is often a good indicator of a dog being sub-threshold.
Exercise 3: Trail of Treats
Leave the door open and make a trail of treats that leads to outside, the end of the trial should contain increasingly high-value treats which ends with a pile of treats or a valued bone or pig ear. Do this frequently, and once your dog is outside, make sure your dog sees a bunch of toys scattered in the yard.
Exercise 4: Outside Is Play Time!
If your dog is play oriented, scatter lots of toys on the lawn and entice him to come outside with squeaking toys or bouncing balls. If your dog is shy, sit on the lawn and try to call him in a happy voice, using an irresistible toy. If it helps, tie it on a string and move it erratically like prey. If your dog comes outdoors, praise lavishly, have a fun upbeat play session, and then invite your dog back inside.
Once inside, make the day boring. In other words, make sure your dog learns that all the fun is outdoors and indoors nothing really great goes on. If you have another dog, let your fearful dog see how much fun he is missing.
Exercise 5: Use Clicker Training
If your dog is clicker-trained, make a target to click-treat and gradually move the target more and more outdoors. Give jackpots for when the dog steps outdoors.
This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. It is not meant to substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, or formal and individualized advice from a veterinary medical professional. Animals exhibiting signs and symptoms of distress should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.
Questions & Answers
I have moved to a new area and my dog is now so fearful of going outside that when I reach for his leash he pees. What do I do?
Your dog needs some time to adjust. You can try to create new positive associations with the leash for now (don't force him to go on walks for now until he is more comfortable). Simply, keep the leash next to you, reach for it and toss a high-value treat. Do this several times until the peeing is replaced by anticipation for the treat. Then progress daily to clipping the leash to her collar, give a treat and then remove it, without going anywhere. Repeat several times, then progress gradually to walking to the door, give treat, remove leash and sit down. Repeat several times. Then, put his leash on, open the door, close the door, toss treat, remove leash and sit down. Progress them to walking with your dog one step outside, then back in etc. Go at your dog's pace. You may need calming aids or the help of a professional if your dog is so stressed there's no progress or he won't take treats.Helpful 11
In the meantime, while the dog is so afraid to go outside, what do we do about to help our agoraphobic dog when he needs to go empty his bladder or bowels? If we're not supposed to force him out, and he absolutely refuses, he certainly can't be expected to hold his waste for several days while we're trying to condition him to go back out. I certainly am not going to let him become un-housetrained by having him get used to going inside.
These are certainly difficult cases. What I tend to do in difficult cases as such is to temporary place pee pads nearby the door so that the dog can be trained to use those and then gradually, as the dog builds confidence and goes more and more outside, I start weaning their use off and praising and rewarding with high value treats for going outside. Since the pee pads are placed by the door, the dog is advantaged in learning to go outside to potty so that should help in the potty training process. We certainly cannot have the dog hold it if the fear is so much that going outside is not feasible.Helpful 18
How do I train my dog to use a ramp?
Many dogs are not comfortable with ramps because of their unfamiliarity and inclination. There is a step-by-step guide with an accompanying video in this article: https://pethelpful.com/dogs/How-to-Train-an-Older-...Helpful 2