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Dog Health: Understanding Pancreatitis in Dogs

Pancreatitis in Dogs

Pancreatitis in Dogs

What Is Pancreatitis?

Pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas, a V-shaped organ/gland responsible for a variety of functions in dogs. This organ works both as an endocrine gland (secreting hormones in the bloodstream) and an exocrine organ (discharging hormones into ducts). Therefore, it is a dual-function gland.

  • As an endocrine gland, the pancreas secretes insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon into the bloodstream (to regulate sugar metabolism).
  • As an exocrine gland, the pancreas discharges pancreatic juice containing enzymes necessary for digesting food into the pancreatic duct (to break down starches, triglycerides, and protein). The pancreas also secretes bicarbonate to buffer the stomach's acids.

The pancreas is found near the dog's first portion of the small intestine, known as the duodenum. The pancreas lies behind the stomach and connects to the duodenum via the duct known as the pancreatic duct.

An Alternative to Viokase

Causes of Pancreatitis in Dogs

Normally, the enzymes in the pancreas activate only once they leave the pancreas and reach the small intestine. Inflammation of the pancreas, however, may cause these enzymes to activate even before leaving the pancreas. When this happens, the enzymes cause the pancreas to digest itself, leading to troublesome consequences such as:

  • Pancreatic tissue becoming inflamed and causing tissue damage.
  • Toxins released due to tissue destruction may cause a widespread inflammatory response.
  • Should the pancreas be compromised, it will no longer be capable of secreting insulin, causing diabetes mellitus.

Generally, pancreatitis is confined to the pancreas and liver, but at times, deleterious complications may take place leading to:

  • Respiratory failure
  • Weber Christian syndrome
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation
  • Pancreatic encephalopathy

Causes of Pancreatitis in Dogs

But what causes the pancreas in dogs to become inflamed in the first place? They may be difficult to ascertain, but the following are some known triggers.

  • Ingestion of fatty foods. Often the dog has a history of getting into the trash or being fed greasy table scraps.
  • Medications. Sulfa-containing antibiotics, azathiprine and L-asparaginase (used often for chemotherapy), potassium bromide (anti-seizure meds).
  • Exposure to organophosphate insecticides.
  • Trauma to the pancreas, such as after being hit by a car.
  • Metabolic disorders such as high calcium levels in the blood (hypercalcemia) or high lipid levels in the blood (hyperlipidemia).
  • Hormonal diseases such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's disease, and diabetes.
  • A tumor in the pancreas.

Note: Some dog breeds are predisposed to pancreatitis, such as Miniature Schnauzers and Yorkshire Terriers. Obese dogs are also prone to this condition.

Symptoms of Pancreatitis

  • Loss of appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Hunched-up position
  • Weakness
  • Abdominal pain
  • Diarrhea
  • Dehydration

Diagnosis of Pancreatitis in Dogs

Veterinarians diagnose pancreatitis through a variety of tests that help rule out or confirm this diagnosis. Generally, blood work in pancreatitis patients reveals very high levels of amylase and lipase, two enzymes produced by the pancreas. Following are some common and not-so-common tests:

  • Physical examination
  • Complete blood count
  • PLI or pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity test
  • SPEC cPL (specific canine pancreatic lipase) test
  • Ultrasound to rule out masses and tumors
  • X-rays suggesting swelling of the pancreas
  • Exploratory surgery in severe cases when no causes are found

Treatment of Pancreatitis in Dogs

Treatment for pancreatitis is aggressive with four goals in mind:

  • Provide pain relief to the dog
  • Control vomiting
  • Correct dehydration
  • Provide nutritional support

Pancreatitis Management for Dogs

Since dogs affected by pancreatitis tend to have diarrhea and vomiting they are often dehydrated and require fluids and electrolytes. This is accomplished by giving dogs fluid through the skin or intravenously. This is often the best option since drinking may cause further vomiting.

Because the pancreas is already inflamed, food can aggravate the inflammation. Giving the pancreas rest is very important. For this reason, dogs are put on NPO. This acronym means ''Nil per os'', a Latin phrase that means ''nothing by mouth''. Per the vet's orders, this means fasting the dog for some time until the pancreas recovers.

Medications to stop vomiting are often prescribed.

If pancreatitis is a side effect of a medication, it should be stopped according to the vet's advice.

At-Home Treatments For Dog Pancreatitis

At times, veterinarians provide instructions on how owners can treat pancreatitis at home. Generally, this is for mild cases, after other medical conditions have been ruled out. This is only a sample of what an owner may be asked to do to make the pancreas recover:

  • Fast the dog for as long as the vet recommends.
  • When the dog shows no vomiting the dog may be offered small, frequent amounts of water. If vomiting continues, ice cubes may help keep the dog hydrated without upsetting the stomach or sub Q fluids may be needed. If the dog refuses water, chicken or beef broth with no onions or garlic can be diluted 50:50 with water.
  • Electrolytes such as Pedialyte or Gatorade can be offered always in small amounts frequently during the day.
  • A bland diet can be started using 75% cooked white rice mixed with 25% of boiled lean ground beef, or boiled chicken breast with the fat scooped away from the surface. This should be fed in very small amounts frequently during the day.
  • If the rice is kept down well, it helps to feed it for 3 to 4 days. Then, the dog may be gradually shifted to its normal diet by adding more kibble and decreasing the bland diet over the course of several days.
  • A prescription diet low in fat and high in fiber may be recommended.

For further reading

  • Homemade Recipes for Dogs With Sensitive Stomachs
    If your canine companion is suffering from a sensitive stomach and indigestion, things can easily get frustrating. While your dog does not have a history of visiting the popular Mexican restaurant around the corner or going on a garlic eating binge,.
  • Dog gastro-enteritis
    Learn about the symptoms suggesting gastroenteritis in dogs and potential cures. Also learn about the prognosis of this serious disorder.
  • Home remedies for vomiting dogs
    Learn some home remedies to help your vomiting dog. Cure your dog with natural remedies at home. Bland diet recipe for dogs.
  • Dog upset stomach home remedies
    Learn some easy and effective home remedies to treat your dog's upset stomach, fresh from your kitchen's pantry!

This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. It is not meant to substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, or formal and individualized advice from a veterinary medical professional. Animals exhibiting signs and symptoms of distress should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.

Questions & Answers

Question: My dog has a blood count of 4,732 (Lipase). Besides putting my dog on a bland diet, is there anything else that I can do to correct the Pancreatitis?

Answer: Your vet can prescribe medications that reduce nausea and vomiting and pain meds. Some cases may require a corticosteroid to reduce pancreatic inflammation. Discuss with your vet what else can be done, especially if your dog is showing signs of not getting better or is getting worse. When vets aren't updated, they often assume that our pets are doing fine so no further steps are needed. This can impact their recovery.

© 2012 Adrienne Farricelli

Comments on May 08, 2019:

looking for recipes for a bland diet my dog is on, he had a infected pancreatitis 2 months ago and my Vet put him on a bland diet but would like more recipes if there is some, Thank You.

Adrienne Farricelli (author) on March 12, 2014:

This article suggests some low fat chewy choices such as carrots and bully sticks in the bottom part under low-fat treats:

pashmak on March 12, 2014:

could u please suggest me a good treat for pancreatitis dogs?i mean something as hard as bone,my dog wants to chew something but i can't give him traet it is about 1 and half year that i didn't give him bone or ........

Adrienne Farricelli (author) on May 09, 2013:

Pancreatitis is a terrible disease. I am happy to hear your Lab recovered nicely and got to enjoy an extra few years. Some dogs get a recurrences and need to stay on a special diet all the time.

kitkat1141 from Ontario, Canada on May 09, 2013:

Sadly my yellow lab developed pancreatitis when he was about 12, for no apparent reason. He could not even hold water down. He had to be admitted to the vet for IV hydration. One tip when we brought him home, was to try to not cook foods he could smell for a few days, as the vet said it would get the digestive juices going, and could create a set back. He suggested we cook up the ground meat and rice before he came home from the clinic, so he couldn't smell it. It worked. He went on to live a normal life until he was 14.

Adrienne Farricelli (author) on May 05, 2013:

Have you seen your vet for this? It's not good for him to be puking so often? Have you ever talked to a nutritionist to find the best diet?

matt on May 05, 2013:

my dog has pancreatitis and won't stop vomiting. he is still full of energy and wants to go on walks and play ball but he pukes daily and won't keep down food any kind. I'm cleaning up puke constantly and worried he will never get better. its been 5 weeks!

icountthetimes on January 10, 2012:

A fantastic hub full of useful information. I like to read up on animals health issues as I have an adorable dog that I think the world of. Armed with knowledge of various conditions I feel that I'm better placed to understand the ins and outs of possible health issues that might rear their head at some point in the future.

danieltiley26 from Amesbury, Wiltshire, U.K on January 09, 2012:

An excellent hub that is very informative and interesting. I have voted up as I have a learnt a lot about pancreatitis thanks this hub.


Deborah Brooks Langford from Brownsville,TX on January 08, 2012:

thanks for a useful interesting hub. I voted up I hope none of our animals have any of this sickness it would break my heart. but at least now I know what to look for.


Brett Winn from US on January 08, 2012:

What is scary is how many pancreatitis symptoms are the same as other disorders. I recently had a dog that I thought might have pancreatitis, he even had the elevated liver enzymes, but it turned out he had heart disease instead. His heart was so enlarged it was taking up the room his other organs should have had and thus mimicked the same symptoms. Great read, thanks! Voted up!