Dr. Mark is a veterinarian. He works mostly with dogs and exotic animals.
Does Your Dog Have Mange?
The only way to tell for sure if your dog has mange is to take him in to your regular vet. There, his skin will be examined, tape-tested to check for the presence of Sarcoptes mites, and scraped to check for Demodex mites.
If the skin scraping is positive and your dog is diagnosed with demodectic (red) mange, you will have a lot of work ahead of you, but at least mange is something that can be treated. When my first dog was diagnosed, demodectic mange was often a death sentence; there were few medications that worked and many dogs continued to get worse.
My dog was an accidental product of a backyard breeder (now she would be called a designer dog and would be expensive) but her immune system, although weak at first, must have allowed her to eventually fight off the disease. What about the disease now? What is going to be done with your dog?
What Is Demodectic Mange?
This mange is a skin disease caused by a mite known as Demodex canis. It is normal to find a few of these mites in most dogs, but for some reason, certain dogs do not have an immune system strong enough to fight them off and they develop infections. The mites spread through the skin and maybe even through the internal organs.
What Does This Mange Look Like?
When the disease started out, it was probably just red skin, probably around the eyes and mouth, and you may not even have noticed it. As it grew worse, hair started falling out in patches, especially around the face and the eyes, and sometimes on the body or the legs.
If you didn't start treatment at that point, the hair loss got worse and your dog's follicles filled up with pus which became infected. A dog with a severe skin infection stinks, and almost no one can ignore the disease at that point.
If the lesions are really old and the skin is thick, like old Demodex infections on the feet, your vet may even need to do a skin biopsy to find the mites. Usually, it is found when the irritated areas of the skin are scraped and examined under a microscope.
How Is Mange Diagnosed?
When you take your dog into his regular vet, he is going to notice the red, inflamed skin, the hair loss, and the typical patches of infection and do a skin scraping. That is when a small amount of skin is scraped off, put in oil, and then examined under the microscope. A dog with a mange infection will have several mites on the slide.
How Can Demodectic Mange Be Treated?
Most of the mild cases of Demodex will get better even without any treatment, or with some of the ointments that are sold for this disease. If the mange has already become so severe that it has led to skin infections, however, it needs to be treated more aggressively.
Amitraz and Benzoyl Peroxide
The first treatment recommended is usually a pesticide called amitraz. It is mixed up and poured on the dog as a dip, at least until the skin is healed up and no more mites are found on the skin scraping, and then at least another month after that. The dog needs to be bathed with benzoyl peroxide so that the pores of the skin will be open before the amitraz is poured on.
The amitrax has several side effects, however, and even then about a third of the cases will not be cured and will need another therapy.
The next treatment is ivermectin, but this drug is so cheap now that I think it should be tried first. (The product listed here is the best form that I have used. It is labelled as an injectible product for cattle but is safe when given orally to dogs.) The dog gets 0.3–0.6 mg/kg orally, and may need to be treated for 3 to 8 months. The dose should be started low and built up slowly. If the dog shows any side effects (excessive salivating, vomiting, ataxia) then an alternative treatment needs to be tried.
Since the ivermectin cannot be used in some dogs (like Collies and others sensitive to ivermectin), they can also be given milbemycin (Interceptor) tablets at 1mg/kg, orally, every day. The dose can even be doubled if there are no side effects (salivation, vomiting, weakness) and the dog is not healed. This is an expensive treatment though so if your dog cannot be treated with the ivermectin the amitraz should still be tried first.
Another new treatment is Bravecto, and after one dose dogs may be free of the mites. NexGard from Merial and Simparica from Zoetis are probably just as effective. They are more expensive, and at this time is only available through your veterinarian, so if you are looking for an over-the-counter remedy, ivermectin is the best choice.
Is the Mange Going to Spread to My Other Dogs?
Demodex is not contagious like sarcoptic mange. If you have several dogs and only one of them was diagnosed with Demodex, though, there is a possibility that some transfer can occur. You can allow them to have regular contact, but just keep the healthy dog in good shape. Make sure she is eating good homemade food and keep her skin in shape by giving omega fatty acids and antioxidants.
Will My Dog Give Me This Mange?
Demodex mites of this kind only live in dog skin, and really only cause problems in some dogs. Hug your dog all you want—the disease will not spread to you, and your dog will thank you for the extra attention.
- Efficacy of orally administered fluralaner (Bravecto™) or topically applied imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate®) against generalized demodicosis in dogs, Fourie JJ, et al, Parasit Vectors. 2015 Mar 28; 8:187. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0775-8.
This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. It is not meant to substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, or formal and individualized advice from a veterinary medical professional. Animals exhibiting signs and symptoms of distress should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.
Questions & Answers
Question: Are blue pits more susceptible to mange or skin disorders?
Answer: I have heard the same thing about red nose pits. It is not the color of the skin, but if the dog is heavily inbred he may have a weak immune system that leads him to being prone too demodectic mange.
Question: What should an Ivermectin dose be for a 15-month-old German Shepherd?
Answer: The Ivermectin dose is dependent on the weight of the dog. You MUST weigh him to give a dose that is even close to correct. Most vets have a scale in their office and will allow anyone walking in to weigh your dog. A lot of pet superstores and smaller pet shops also have scales, but call first before you go to make sure.
If nothing else, you can always weigh yourself, weigh the dog as you are holding him (if you are strong enough to pick up and hold your dog), and then subtract your weight.
If your dog is 60 pounds, for example, (27 kilos), he needs 300-600 mcg per kilo, so a total of 16,000 mcg. If you are using the 1% ivermectin for cattle he will need about 0.9cc. I would start him at 0.5 cc (milliliters) the first few days, make sure there are no problems, and then move him up to the higher dose. He may need up to twice that much, but try the smaller dose first and see how he responds.
© 2012 Dr Mark
trish1048 on January 21, 2013:
That makes me feel a bit better. I would hate to think my folks chose not to spend money.
You are welcome :)
Dr Mark (author) from The Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil on January 19, 2013:
Yes, cost is an issue but back in 1953 the drugs to treat demodectic mange had not even been invented, so even if your folks had been willing to spend the money there was nothing to do. Really a shame.
Thanks for your kind words about my hubs. I hope the information, and my (sometimes unconventional!) viewpoint helps some dog owners.
trish1048 on January 19, 2013:
Cost is a huge factor for many people. Even routine veterinary care is difficult for a lot of people.
My thoughts also go to hoarders. I think that the mindset of folks who become hoarders is that they truly believe they are saving all those animals just because they house and feed them. They fail to understand that it takes a lot more than that to properly care for a pet.
In any case, I'm happy to see that you have put out so much useful information for all dog lovers. Your hubs are well worth reading.
Dr Mark (author) from The Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil on January 19, 2013:
Unfortunately back in 1953 dogs were put down for demodectic mange, so I wouldn´t have been surprised if that is what Timmy was diagnosed with. Even 10 years later most were put down, but now there are a lot of alternatives if the owner can afford them.
trish1048 on January 19, 2013:
I was five years old (1953) when we got our first dog, a collie I named Timmy. My parents had a dog house for him, and that's where he lived. I do not remember him ever being in our house. In any case, I adored that dog. I spent hours and hours playing with him. I'd make up songs and sing to him as well. My sweetest memory is of him waiting for me to come home from school. He would greet me with those wonderful wet doggie kisses and I'd wrap my arms around his neck and hold him as tight as I could.
Sadly, one day, he was gone. I do not know the circumstances, only that he had contracted mange, and as far as I know, my parents had him put down. I do not know how advanced veterinary medicine was in those days, but I seem to recall my parents said the doctor couldn't fix him. Needless to say, I cried my little heart out.
Since then, I've owned many dogs as well as cats, and due to downsizing, I no longer own a dog. My life is spent with my three cats. Our newest addition is a stray neighborhood cat named Salem. He's all black with gold eyes. To our delight, we took him to the vet and he got a clean bill of health. My heart rests easier knowing he has a good home and doesn't have to fend for himself on the streets any longer :)
Dr Mark (author) from The Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil on September 02, 2012:
Hi ThoughtSandwiches thanks for the comment. That must have been rough; that is a LOT of hair. It only takes weeks for the hair to come back after a demodex infection, but I have never seen a smoke allergy like you described so I am not sure if the follicles were damaged, delaying hair growth. Eight months ago? Surely that must be some sort of record. I sure hope he is okay by the time your winter rolls around.
ThoughtSandwiches from Reno, Nevada on September 02, 2012:
My dog developed an allergic reaction to smoke about eight months back after our neighborhood was engulfed in a wildfire. Just about all his hair fell out...as he is a Great Pyrenees...you can imagine how much hair that was. It's slowly growing back but I am on the constant lookout for other skin type problems (since I can actually see his skin now). I will be keeping my eyes open for this new possibility.
Paranoid in Reno,
PS...so...about how long would you say it would take a dog's fur to grow back in his situation?