Dogs That Save Lives: Facts About Search-and-Rescue Dogs
The Amazing Skills of Search-and-Rescue Dogs
Most people know about the lifesaving work of search-and-rescue dogs through shows they've seen on television. There are famous fictional dogs like Lassie and occasional documentaries about the real lives of these canine heroes. A dog's extraordinary intelligence, powerful sense of smell, and willingness to help make it the ideal animal for this kind of work. Few people understand the full range of skills these dogs are trained to use in rescue situations.
Dogs are often portrayed as sniffing the air or familiarizing themselves with an individual's odor by sniffing an item of clothing which carries that person's unique scent. In theory, any dog would be capable of picking up both an airborne scent and following a land trail. In practice, however, professional dog handlers train the animals to specialize in one or other of several tracking disciplines. Search-and-rescue teams may include:
- air-scent dogs
- trailing dogs
- tracking dogs
- disaster dogs
- cadaver dogs
- water-search dogs
- and avalanche dogs
Search-and-Rescue Dog Documentary
Air-scent dogs are the best known. These animals are trained to pick up molecules of human scent adrift in the air. They are able to hone in on the precise location of the person emitting the scent by detecting and following the odor to its point of highest concentration. Air-scent dogs are best used in large, open spaces in which other people are not present. This is because they may not be able to distinguish the target sent from that of another person.
Several environmental factors can impact the success of an air-scent dog's search. Prevailing wind conditions, ambient temperature, type of terrain, time of day, pollution and contaminants may all affect the dogs ability to locate a specific scent. A light wind in the early morning on a still, cloudy day represent the best conditions for a scent dog to undertake search-and-rescue.
Trailing dogs are specially trained to detect the presence of tiny particles of human tissue, such as hair and skin cells a person sheds as they move. Heavier than the molecules suspended in air which an air-scent dog is trained to discern, these tiny particles sink toward the ground, resting on soil, foliage, or the surface of water. A trailing dog will follow a scent with its nose close to the ground.
The bloodhound is the most well-known of the scent-discriminating trailing dogs. Usually working in a harness, the animal is primed by sniffing an item of clothing which carries the scent of the missing person. Unlike the air-scent dog, the trailing dog will discriminate and follow that specific scent alone.
Trailing dogs are able to work in urban environments as easily as natural ones. Given a suitable item from the missing person and knowledge of the last location which the person was seen, trailing dogs are often the quickest way to locate a victim. But in the absence of a scent item, there is little a trailing dog can do.
Tracking dogs do not use scent at all. These dogs are trained to follow discrete physical tracks and traces left by a person. These may be disturbed ground or footprints. Tracking dogs are also used in the pursuit of criminals where no indication of scent is available. In these situations, they will often be used in teams which can close in on an individual.
Disaster dogs may use a variety of techniques to locate people, including the skills used by air-scent, trailing, and tracking dogs. But they are specially trained to work in the aftermath of disaster zones. They may be used to locate people trapped in rubble after bombings or earthquakes. These extraordinary dogs are trained to work in unstable environments and cramped or confined conditions.
The cadaver dog has been taught how to detect the particular scent of a human corpse. These specially trained animals can detect cadavers above ground and those which have been buried. The cadaver dog will ignore the scent of living humans. These animals are able to detect recently dead bodies and those which have been deceased for some time, even if the only remains are dried blood or fragments of bone.
Water-search dogs have very specialized skills. Working with the human teams in boats or along the shoreline, they can pick up the presence of a human body submerged in water by sensing the gases such bodies release. A trained diver works with the team, ready to search for the body once the dog indicates its presence and location.
Avalanche dogs operate in snow to locate the victims of an avalanche. They can plow through deep drifts and detect the scent of a person even under 15 feet of snowfall. Avalanche dogs use a range of senses, including smell, sight, and hearing, to find victims.
We Owe Dogs a Great Debt of Gratitude
The first search-and-rescue dog was the famous St. Bernard which helped people lost in the mountains. Dogs have been especially trained to assist people in recovery situations for upwards of 300 years. Every year, the lives of hundreds of individuals are saved by the skill and bravery of these remarkable animals who work in some of the most dangerous situations known, from landslides to war zones. Humans owe a debt of thanks to these truly courageous and highly skilled dogs.
© 2018 Amanda Littlejohn