Puppy Stages: 16-Week Old Puppy Behavior and Development
This 16 week old puppy has new permanent incisors already.
What to Expect from a 16-week-old Puppy?
If you are wondering what happens when a puppy is 16 weeks old, most likely you are considering adopting a puppy of this age or are wondering if your 16-week-old puppy's behaviors and development are normal for this age. What happens at this age? What behaviors should you expect? At what point is his development?
At 16-weeks, the puppy's grace period for critical socialization has closed. Indeed, this brief window of opportunity according to veterinarian and Animal Behavior PhD, Ian Dunbar, takes place between four and twelve weeks of age. What happens if you missed the boat or your vet recommended you to wait until your dog's series of vaccinations were completed? Karen Overall, Veterinarian, Diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Behavior claims in a handout prepared by the Pet Professional Guild: "People need to realize that vets don’t know that much about problematic behavior, or maybe even normal behavior. The single biggest reason people relinquish animals to a shelter is a behavioral problem.” For tips on how to socialize your puppy safely, the website "Operation Socialization" offers many tips.
At this point, if you haven't socialized your 16-week-old puppy, you are left with the option of what is known in dog training lingo as "remedial socialization." This doesn't mean you'll have to make-up for the missed time and flood your dog with stimuli! This will likely overwhelm your puppy and cause more damage than good. Instead, gradually and systematically expose your dog to people and other dogs. Make sure you have established a certain level of trust and bond with your puppy. Use high value treats to create positive associations. If your dog appears fearful, respect that and don't force him to interact--as of yet.. Then figure out a way to systematically desensitize and countercondition him to that fearful stimuli
There are several things going on from a developmental and behavioral standpoint in 16-week puppies, in the next paragraph we will go over them.
16-week-old Puppy Development
At 16-weeks, puppies still retain several puppy characteristics enough for causing people to "ohhh" and "awwww" at the sight of them. Yet, they are undergoing several physical changes that are gradually morphing them into young adults. They are undergoing rapid growth and are becoming taller and longer, but their minds are still like puppies. At this age, they are also almost reaching half of their adult weight. Following are some developmental stages observed in 16-week-old puppies.
In the article on 12-week old puppies, we saw how the 12-week puppy still retained some of that soft, puppy hair. Now, one month later, at 16 weeks, you may start seeing a bit of adult hair. In the 16-week old Lab mix in the picture, you can see how she started showing the first zig-zag hair in the back as seen in many adult Labs. A month earlier this was not visible.
At 12 weeks, the puppy was starting to lose some of it's baby teeth. Now, a month later after losing the incisors, you may start seeing the first adult, permanent incisors coming in by the age of 5 months. The canine teeth may also fall out at around 16 weeks.This is a time where the puppy has sore gums and likes to chew. It's very important to find safe, age-appropriate puppy chew toys at this point. Chew toys and bones crafted for adult dogs may fracture a puppy's delicate teeth.
Those bowels and bladders are now starting to gain more control. Where at 12 weeks, puppies were able to hold it for two to four hours, now they can hold hold it even up to about five hours. Most puppies at this age can hold it all night. Crate training should continue if this is the chosen method used for potty training.
16-Week Old Puppy Behavior
There are many behavior changes taking place in 16-week old puppies. As usual, they will have boundless energy and will engage in lots of play. Puppy owners may feel overwhelmed at times by boisterous activity. This is a good time to keep the mind stimulated through training and appropriate play.
Pups Become More Wary
As mentioned, this is the time when the window for socialization closes. This socialization phase during which dogs have less fear of the unknown has a distinct purpose in nature. Respected dog trainer and author Jean Donaldson, explains in her book "The Culture Clash", that this brief "window of time” is there so young pups have the chance to become better acclimated ( the correct term is habituate) to sights, sounds and experiences within their surroundings. It is meant to be there so animals aren't spooked by harmless stimuli such as the trees, rocks and birds chirping. Then once, this window is closed, animals start becoming more wary of novel stimuli. This suspicion has an adaptive function. It helps increase the chances for the pups' survival because it prevents them from getting in contact with stimuli that may harm.
The saying "curiosity killed the cat" may apply to puppies as well. During this time, puppies are curious about learning about their environment which makes them more likely to get into things and into trouble. Keep an eagle eye on what your puppy tries to eat in the yard and on walks, at home, make sure your home is puppy proofed. At the same time, puppies may have moments where they are fearful of things. They may move tentatively towards new objects and may be intimidated by noises. It's important that they are allowed to investigate scary stimuli on their own and that they're praised for taking initiative.
At 16-weeks, puppies are still a bit clumsy, but they are getting better at coordinating their movements. Most have boundless energy and are eager to romp, play and jump for a good part of the day. Fortunately, at this age, they also tend to sleep a lot!
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