Understanding Dog Marking Behaviors
Urine marking isn't just a trickle of urine meant to upset you; rather, it's a form of communication. What is Rover trying to communicate? Dogs may be trying to convey different messages. Are you listening?
Many people assume that only unaltered, intact dogs urine mark. "My dog is neutered and he still urine marks" is something I commonly heard at the vet hospital. Many owners had hoped that by removing the dog's testicles, they would magically stop the marking. The truth is, urine marking is much more than sexual, and it isn't only triggered by hormones. Both my spayed female and neutered male will urine mark given the chance, and they're definitively not searching for a mate!
Why Do Dogs Urine Mark?
So what's urine marking all about? A whole lot, much more than you may think. I meet many dogs who come to my place for boarding and training, and I like to take note of their elimination habits. I have seen dogs who mark with their leg up or squatting down—some dexterous dogs even do a sort of head stand. Some will scratch the dirt after the deed, while others are more secretive, leaving their mark only in areas of tall grass. Some dogs can be very picky about where they eliminate, while for others, any place will do. Several dogs will carefully gauge the contents of their bladder making sure they have enough to mark as much as they can. Then, when they eventually run out, they look a bit disappointed as they lift their leg and nothing comes out (dry marking). Then you have those who engage in perimeter marking. I have seen this mostly in livestock guardians. To each their own!
Why am I so fascinated in the elimination habits of dogs? It's so varied and interesting. Dogs assume different positions, choose different areas and surfaces, engage in different rituals. It's almost a way humans sign, each dog leaves its own signature in a different manner. Curious to learn more about urine marking in dogs? On your "mark", get set and go!
Did you know? Dogs don't analyze pheromones with their noses, but they have an organ purposely built for this task: the vomero-nasal organ, also known as Jacobson’s organ, found within their nasal cavity.
9 Reasons Dogs Urine Mark
Urine in dogs has a dual purpose: for emptying the bladder but can also be used for communicative means, basically the purpose is triggering a social response in other dogs or other animals. Urine contains pheromones which are chemicals meant to deliver different messages purposely left for a recipient to interpret. This is why dogs are so attuned to sniffing areas where other dogs have eliminated. As you may have heard, sniffing other dog's urine is like "reading pee-mail", sending "Tweets" or reading important headlines of what is going on the doggy world. Dogs are constantly scanning the environment for these messages and are also eager to leave their own. Interestingly, dogs don't analyze these pheromones with their noses, but they have an organ purposely built for this task: the vomero-nasal organ, also known as Jacobson’s organ, found within their nasal cavity. Following are some messages dogs use to convey through urine marking.
1. "This is my territory"
As mentioned, I have seen several livestock guardian dogs engaging in what is called "perimeter marking." These dogs are constantly scanning their territory for presence of threats. Who can blame them? These breeds were selectively bred to protect their livestock and they have a deep need to guard anything, your family, your children, your ducks and even the bird feeder-- if need be. According to Livestock Guardian Dogs.org "When protecting its livestock, the first line of protection is the scent marks left around the perimeter of its yard or field. The next line of defense is barking – an announcement that someone big is on duty and trespassing might be hazardous." These territorial pheromones left upon marking are meant to mark the perimeter of a perceived territory.
Similarly, free-ranging mother dogs are seen scent marking near their dens which may suggest an effort to discourage intruders from entering that area.
2. "Rover Was Here"
Does your dog coincidentally urinate right by the driveway where other dogs live? If so, he may be leaving a little bit of pee-mail for his doggy neighbors to sniff when they go on their next walk. You'll also see this form of "tweeting' when your dog is at the dog park and marks around or when your dog marks on vertical items. The choice of vertical items such as lamp posts, fire hydrants or trees is quite common in canines for the simple fact that they are at nose level of other dogs. It's sort of like putting a big sign at eye level in stores to attract people.You may occasionally stumble upon tenacious small dogs who will almost do a head stand just to be able to mark on a vertical item to add their own little message. What do these messages convey? A whole lot! By sniffing marked areas, the recipients learn more about things such as the sex, identity and reproductive status of the marker.
Some dogs may also scratch the dirt after the deed. This is almost an attempt to add a visual marker to the olfactory one. It's almost as if dogs were putting an arrow as to say "follow this line of scratched dirt and at the end of it, yes, urine" explains Ian Dunbar. On top of that,consider that there are secreting pheromones found in the glands of the dog's feet, so dogs who scratch are also leaving another olfactory element on top of the urine left. Interestingly, Alexandra Horowitz in her book " Inside of a Dog" reports this behavior being more likely on windy days when the message could be more readily waft away. How interesting!
3. "Female in Heat, Here!"
And then you have the special urine left behind from the famous French poodle in estrus. When used to mark, this special urine draws male dogs as honey draws bees even from considerable distances. What's in it? According to VCA Animal Hospital "The urine contains pheromones and hormones, both of which signal any interested males..."For this reason, many encourage owners of intact females not to take them on walks while in estrus as this would certainly attack many contestants.
4. "She Is Mine!"
This is a bit similar to territorial marking, but more than territory this form of marking conveys possession of something other than territory. I have seen male dogs mark over the scent of a female as if to declare they possess the girl almost as a husband would give a ring to tell others that their wife is already "taken".Pal (2003)conducted some research on urine marking and found that male dogs used to engage in what he classifies as "Raised Leg Displays" that is, "dry marking" in courtship ad perhaps it has a competitive, agonistic function. Bekoff seems to agree, since this behavior was mostly seen when another dog was present. It's as if the marking in this case assumes an "ownership function." Dunbar and Buehler though also hypothesize that the marking behavior may also be a way to cover the female's scent so to disguise other contender males throwing them off the scent.
5. "Coping With a Stressful Situation Here"
And then you have urine marking when a dog is stressed by novelty and changes in his environment. Don't blame Rover for urinating on your guest's luggage or on the bed where he just slept; he's marking from stress in an effort to "make things smell familiar again." Typically, these dogs will not urine mark on vertical objects as seen in the "I was here" social media style marking, but will mark on the new items in question. Kleiman (1966) in Behavioral Effects of Domestication volume 1, discusses how urine marking may be used to secure an unfamiliar place or object by rendering it familiar with the scent.
6. "SOS, Distress Call!"
The saying "I almost peed my pants" applies to dogs as well, I have indeed seen my fair share of dogs who urinated when they were frightened by something perceived as scary. I have seen this form of urination in a Yorkie which the owner told me a previous trainer claimed him to be "dominant aggressive" towards people entering his home. I evaluated this dog, and sooner than later, figured out the dog was really acting out of fear as he left a dribble of urine when he faced a stranger coming into his home and tried attacking this person with barking, lunging and nipping at the heels.
7. "Life Is So Exciting!"
More commonly known as "excitement urination", you'll see this occur mostly in puppies and young dogs when they greet people at the door, during play time or when they receive attention. Excitement is a strong emotion that causes quite powerful physical responses, and urination is one of them, especially seen in dogs who haven't attained good bladder control. Luckily, as the pups grow and their ability to hold it better increases, the problem fades away and becomes a memory of the past.
8. "Just Didn't Know What to Do"
At times, urine marking can occur when the dog feels overly aroused or overstimulated in some social situations. The marking in this case, takes place as a displacement behavior. In this case, the dog may mark anything found nearby and this may include people, other dogs or anything else. The marking takes often place as if the dog wasn't even aware of it--almost as if his neurons weren't connecting. You can almost see the dog at times react as "ooops!" this urine just came out!"
9. "I'm Just a Lowly Worm"
Most commonly known as submissive urination, you'll see this behavior occur when the puppy or young dog is a tad bit intimidated and is showing appeasement signals of submission such as ears back, whining and lip licking. Most likely, the puppy will roll over his back and urinate as he exposes the inguinal area. This is quite a vulnerable position to assume and it clearly shows that the pup doesn't come in harm. Indeed, Ian Dunbar suggests, the pup is saying "I am lowly worm, I respect your higher rank, and I would like to be friends." This behavior can be seen when the pup is approached by other dogs or people. It can be triggered by looming over or engaging in other body postures the pup finds a bit intimidating or when the pup is scolded. The urine emitted by the puppy is also a clear signal of their intent not to harm, indeed, other dogs will smell the urine and understand it's just a puppy and perhaps may grant them a puppy license.
Tell me how your dog marks and I'll tell you something about your dog
Can you learn something about your dog's personality by the way he marks, just as some people can predict personality traits by just looking at a person's handwriting? Who knows, there may be chances we may be able to see patterns based on marking behaviors among dogs who share some traits. I wished more studies were conducted on this and I ponder about this subject quite often. It would be wonderful conducting more research on canine elimination habits just to see if there are common factors. So far, I have noticed that several introvert dogs tend to eliminate almost secretly and will take a while to find an appropriate spot to eliminate; whereas, extrovert dogs eliminate freely and in plain view when the need comes. Is it just a coincidence or is there more to it? I would love to hear your thoughts on your dog's elimination habits and personality!
Questions & Answers
My housebroken dog recently will go urinate outside then come in and lift his leg in my house in different areas. I'm beyond frustrated with this and don't know what to do. Do you have any advice? He is a 10-year-old male dog.
In a dog of this age who was housebroken, it would be important ruling out a medical condition. A veterinary evaluation therefore would be a good starting point. The vet may run some blood and urine tests to rule out or confirm medical reasons such as diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, Cushing's disease, Addison's disease and hypercalcemia.
Once medical causes have been ruled out, the next step would be treating it as a behavioral problem. Stress can cause marking behaviors in dogs and any changes in the household may do this. In an older dog, canine cognitive dysfunction (just like senility in elderly people), can cause changes in behavior and inappropriate urination or defecation.
.Clean all areas with an enzyme based cleaner such as Nature's Miracle. When outside make sure that he empties his bladder even though this means having him go multiple times to mark in various places. Manage any new stress if there are any new changes in the household. Prevent access to the areas he is marking in the home. You will have to go back to square one as if potty training all over and keep an eagle eye on him to stop him before he goes and escort him outside and praise and reward him for going.Helpful 4
Our 18-month-old dog marks on our sofa and only when he is at home alone with my eldest son. Can there be a reason for this?
There may be several reasons. Perhaps he suffers from separation anxiety and is peeing from the anxiety of detaching from a person he is particularly attached to. Perhaps, he knows your son may not correct him as others in the household do. Perhaps despite your son being home, he feels vulnerable and pees from stress.Helpful 4
I think my two, male 9-month-old wirehaired pointing griffons have what look like tantrums. Do you think dogs could urinate as a way to "back talk" if they don't get their way?
Dogs do not typically act out of spite as humans do. Most likely, they may engage in "submissive urination" if this happens the moment you scold or reprimand them. This is an appeasement signal meant to calm other dogs or people down and convey that they are not a threat.Helpful 1
© 2014 Adrienne Janet Farricelli