Understanding Fixed Action Patterns in Dogs
What's a Fixed Action Pattern?
A fixed action pattern, often abbreviated as FAP, is basically a sequence of behavior patterns that cannot be changed and that once initiated, must be carried to completion. The onset of these behaviors are triggered by a specific sign stimulus or releaser.
In behavioral science, a common example used is the Graylag Goose. If you happen to displace an egg from the nest of this bird, the bird will automatically, by reflex, roll the egg back to the nest using her beak. Zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist, Konrad Lorenz, however, soon noticed that the goose would still complete this action, even when the egg was removed and no longer there! In this example, the sight of the displaced egg is the sign stimulus. (see video below)
Another interesting animal often used to explain fixed action patterns is the stickleback fish. Dutch ethologist Niko Tinbergen noticed how this species of fish would attack any competing males that entered its territory. The male fish in this species has a distinct red stripe so anything resembling this red stripe appeared to alert this fish. Interestingly, Tinbergen noticed how these fish would try to attack red British mail trucks as they passed by and were visible through the glass of these fish tanks. In this example, the sight of red is the sign stimulus.
Avian mating dances are another example of FAP. Here the sign stimulus is the presence of the female. The dancing entails an elaborate sequence of movements to impress the female birds. The male bird often has flashy colors. The female will choose her mate based on these elaborate dances.
In deer, the sign stimulus of a predator triggers a fixed action pattern where they will move in a fast zig-zag movement so that they confuse the predator. Yet, this same fixed action pattern is useless or even harmful in deer when they are crossing the road as they are more likely yo be hit by a car this way.
To recap, a fixed action patterns is:
- A behavior independent from learning
- An instinctive, hard-wired behavior
- A behavior occurring as a response to an external stimulus known as sign stimulus or releaser.
- A behavior produced by a neural pathway known as innate releasing mechanism
- A behavior that cannot be changed
- A behavior that must continue once initiated
- A behavior difficult to train because it's instinctive and controlled by primitive neural organization. (Steven Lindsey)
- The behavior is found throughout the species. Lea (1984)
- The behaviors are adaptive responses, meaning that they have helped the species cope with certain environmental aspects.
Next we'll see some examples of fixed action patterns in canine companions. Understanding them will help you realize which behaviors are not under your dog's cognitive control.
Fixed Action Pattern is Grelag Goose
Fixed Action Patterns in Dogs
Interestingly, modern research has found that fixed action patterns are not as "fixed" as thought. Even among animals of the same species, some patterns differ and the patterns may vary by context. Modern ethologists, therefore, prefer the term "modal action patterns". Many ethologists though seem to agree that fixed action patterns are commonly seen in fight, flight, feeding and reproduction. So let's now take a look at certain fixed action patterns taking place in dogs.
- Konrad Lorenz claims that urine marking by male dogs is one of them. Upon smelling the urine of a rival male dog (the sign stimulus), he will spontaneously lift his leg to urine mark, even when his reservoir of urine is negligible.
- According to the book "The Boy Who Couldn't Stop Washing", other examples of fixed action patterns include the typical circling around ritual dogs do before laying down. This ancestral behavior thought to have developed to push down grass and scare off possible snakes and instincts, is still retained in dogs regardless of where they are sleeping.
As seen, these are two cases of fixed-action patterns in dogs that have survived despite domestication and that seem like may endure no matter what.
Handbook of Applied Animal Behavior and Training, Steven Lindsey, Blackwell Publishing
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© 2012 Adrienne Janet Farricelli