Using Functional Analysis for Dog Behavior Problems

Updated on July 26, 2019
alexadry profile image

Adrienne is a certified dog trainer, former veterinary assistant, and the author of "Brain Training for Dogs."

Functional analysis can help you learn a lot about dog behavior.
Functional analysis can help you learn a lot about dog behavior.

What Is Functional Analysis for Dog Behavior?

If you are trying to learn more about functional analysis for dog behavior, most likely you are a behavioral professional who is looking more into learning how to apply it. But what exactly is functional analysis, and what's its correct usage? How can it benefit you?

Functional analysis is used in behavioral psychology, and its main purpose is to help you apply the principles of operant conditioning so you can highlight the relationship between stimuli and responses.

To get to the core of the function of a behavior, you will need to identify motivating factors, the antecedent, the behavior and the consequence that maintains it. Collecting data, the dog's history and actively observing the dog's behaviors offers further insights into the pieces of the puzzle. In the next paragraph, we will take a look at the steps that are required to perform a functional analysis in dogs.

Steps for Performing a Functional Analysis

If you want to systematically collect data for a functional analysis, it should be done in a methodical, systematic matter. This will help you collect data in an organized manner so you can better analyze your findings and come up with the most appropriate behavior-modification program.

Following are some steps on how to perform a functional analysis based on a table presented in Steven R. Lindsay's book Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training, Adaptation and Learning.

  1. Collect the dog's history along with important details such as the dog's medical history, health and nutrition.
  2. Identify exactly which triggers and situations cause the behavior to take place and in what occasions the behavior doesn't take place. In what context does the unwanted behavior take place? What's the possible motivation? would the behavior take place if the antecedent was not present? Would the consequence take place if the behavior were not present?
  3. What's the role of the dog's temperament and breed? Does the dog appear to be genetically predisposed to behave in a certain way? Is the breed predisposed to certain behaviors?
  4. Compile a list of antecedents and consequences.
  5. How often does the behavior take place? What's its magnitude?
  6. If feasible, directly assess the dog's behavior in person or watch videos the owner has made.
  7. Discuss with the owner what has been done in the past to address the behavior, the results and effects.
  8. Develop hypothesis about antecedents and consequences.
  9. Develop a behavior modification plan based on hypothesis.
  10. Assess the effects the plan has in altering the behavior.

A Note on the Controversy of Identifying Motivation

Identifying the dog's motivation for engaging in aggressive behavior appears to be a rather controversial subject. On one hand, there are behavior professionals who think that digging deep to identify the dog's motives is a waste of time. The school of thought is that, as humans, we will never really be able to get into a dog's head and identify the dog's thoughts. Because of this, labeling a dog's motives can be misleading and distracting.

On the other hand, some behavior professionals think it's worthy to understand a dog's motive and that by digging deeper there are chances a more accurate behavior-modification program can be employed. For instance, should a dog bite a jogger, the first school of thought would think that determining the cause for the bite is irrelevant and that the management and generic treatment plan should remain the same regardless. The treatment plan might involve proofing a dog to heel and sit in the presence of joggers.

The second school of thought would instead find it important to determine if the bite was triggered by fear or predatory drive. They would design a treatment plan, therefore, based on the presumed motivation. If fear-based, the treatment plan may involve desensitization and counter-conditioning. If predatory-based, predatory-outlet activities may be suggested.

Truth is, there are cases where the underlying motive may never be clear. It is sometimes best to identify the function of the behavior, rather than its motive. What is the dog looking for? Is he behaving aggressively for attaining distance? Is the behavior a distance increasing signal? Why is the dog trying to attain distance? "The difference between identifying a function and a motivation is presumptuousness" claims James O' Heare in the Canine Aggression Handbook. He further adds that "actual dog behavior doesn't always fit neatly into any category system that I have seen" and that owners shouldn't attempt to "jam square pegs into round holes."

Classification systems defining causes of dog aggressive behaviors are there mostly for illustration purposes and to allow behavior professionals the opportunity to "design more motivational directed treatments" he adds.

Note: This article is not a substitute for professional behavior advice. If your dog is exhibiting behavioral problems, please consult with a qualified dog behavior professional.

Actual dog behavior doesn't always fit neatly into any category system that I have seen.. Owners shouldn't attempt to "jam square pegs into round holes."

— James O' Heare

Functional Assessment for Behavioral Problems in People

This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. It is not meant to substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, or formal and individualized advice from a veterinary medical professional. Animals exhibiting signs and symptoms of distress should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.

© 2013 Adrienne Farricelli


    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment
    • alexadry profile imageAUTHOR

      Adrienne Farricelli 

      7 years ago

      Yes, you never end learning about dogs and the great thing is that there are so many things that still need to be discovered. Have a great rest of the week-end too~!

    • Eiddwen profile image


      7 years ago from Wales

      I love anything to do with animals but dogs are my favourite. there was much to learn n here and you created a very well presented and interesting article. Voted up and have a great weekend.


    • alexadry profile imageAUTHOR

      Adrienne Farricelli 

      7 years ago

      Ladydeonne, indeed, many approaches used on dogs were inspired by those used in humans. Learning theory among dogs and humans has many similarities. I'm sure with your background you would make a good dog psychologist!

    • alexadry profile imageAUTHOR

      Adrienne Farricelli 

      7 years ago

      Tilsontitan, thanks for stopping by. There are two different views on this, one school of thought is to dig deep to find a motive, the other is to treat the problem regardless the cause using a generalized approach. I personally, am for the dig deeper approach if if feasible, but have gone the other route too when there were too many variables. Thanks for the votes up!

    • ladydeonne profile image

      Deonne Anderson 

      7 years ago from Florence, SC

      As a Mental Health Therapist, I have facilitated and developed many behavioral treatment plans for humans. I find it interesting that behavioral treatment plans for dogs and humans are almost identical. I think I'll look into becoming a dog psychologist. I love dogs, have two of my own and have had dogs as a part of my household for all of my adult life. Loved your article and learned much from it.

    • tillsontitan profile image

      Mary Craig 

      7 years ago from New York

      I found this interesting. Seems we are always trying to find out why a dog behaves a certain way so that we can modify their behavior safely.

      Voted up and useful.


    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

    Show Details
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
    ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)