Your Guide to Bull Terrier Coat Colours

Updated on February 26, 2018
Jana Louise Smit profile image

As an animal welfare worker, Jana worked with Bull Terriers. She had a boarding home for the breed and currently owns a perky specimen.

A standard white with a brindle and white mini Bull Terrier.
A standard white with a brindle and white mini Bull Terrier. | Source

Bull Terriers Are Classified by Coat Colour

A Bull Terrier is classified as either "White" or "Coloured." This may seem odd at first. Why are there only two groups when “Coloured” consists of many beautiful and distinct shades? The answer is in the breed's history which reaches back to the 1800s when the first breed standard was defined. The early breeders agreed unanimously that the most desirable trait—more than any other—was the dog's flawless porcelain coat. For a long time, this “rule” was law. Eventually, fans of "Coloureds" grew in number and influence. Even so, "White" maintains a category of its own.

White Bull Terriers

"White White" dogs faced their own brand of prejudice. Any blemish (basically just a dot or other colour) would cause the animal to be banned from the show ring. It was not until much later that "Whites" were allowed to have markings. However, these were limited to the head (think pirate eye patch or black ears). Even today, to be considered a "White," a dog's entire neck and body must be porcelain.

A common misconception that still floats is that the "White" is linked to albinism. It is easy to see why some might think so—the pink ears, muzzle and eyelids. These traits are responsible for its slang name “pig dog.” However, an albino will have a reddish reflection in the eyes and pink nostrils. A true "White" sports dark eyes and the nose will also be black. Blue-eyed puppies have been known to be born but they are not acceptable for showing or breeding, and with good reason. Such dogs are usually completely deaf.

Speaking of which, White Bull Terriers risk more of the breed's health problems. Deafness is perhaps one of the longest in its history, traceable back to their main ancestor in the 1800s, the extinct English White Terrier. Coloured dogs can suffer from this handicap, usually in one ear. But the white dogs tend to be deaf more often and sometimes in both ears. Since their skin has less pigmentation, or none at all, their risk of skin cancer is also higher.

If you happen to own a "White" with a smidgen of colour, you also need to know what these dogs are called. This is especially important if you want to register your puppy for future showing and breeding.

White and Red Coat Colouring

This happy lark has one red ear. Technically, she is a white and red.
This happy lark has one red ear. Technically, she is a white and red. | Source

The Different Types of White Coat Varieties

  • White. This is your pure white dog. The only colour allowed is the black nose.
  • White and black brindle. Head markings are black with light coloured streaks.
  • White and brindle. Head markings are brownish with dark streaks.
  • White and red. An eye patch or ear will be red.
  • White and red smut. This variety is pretty much the same as a normal white and red. However, “smut” means the animal has a darker face, almost like the muzzle was dusted with charcoal.
  • White, black and tan. Head markings are tan but with a touch of black.
  • White and fawn. Head markings are pure fawn.
  • White and fawn smut. Same as above, but with the dark muzzle.

The Gorgeous Red

A beautiful example of a red smut and white female.
A beautiful example of a red smut and white female. | Source

The Four Reds

There is something special about the "Red." The rich rust presents as a clean and attractive arrangement. Usually, the majority of the body is red, with white stockings, tail, chest and muzzle stripe. Some have black marks above the eyes or folding under the chin. This is a highly popular coat colour, perhaps second only to the "White."

  • Red. Most of the dog's body will be red but its paws, chest and chin might be white.
  • Red and white. If there is more white, such as leg socks, a white chest that wraps around the neck and connects to a white face mask, then the dog will fall into this category.
  • Red smut. The same as the full red, just with a darker muzzle.
  • Red smut and white. If the red smut also has a lot more white, or equal to the red, then it will be a red smut and white.

Fawn-Coloured Bull Terriers

Often seen as "Red's" neglected little sister, "Fawn" dogs have their share of supporters and haters. Technically a kind of red, the coat is more sandy or light tan and is also available in the now-familiar variations.

  • Fawn. There are little to no white markings.
  • Fawn and white. Once the legs, neck, chest and face carry white, it is no longer a solid Fawn.
  • Fawn smut. Since the coat is light, the smut muzzle reflects more strongly in the Fawn, giving it quite an attractive look. However, white markings should be limited.
  • Fawn smut and white. A lot of white will place your Fawn smut in this division.

Classic Brindle Coat Colour

A brindle and white.
A brindle and white. | Source

The Striped Beauties

A brindle Bull Terrier has the kind of beauty and presence that turns heads. Somehow, the breed's build and personality suits being stripey wonders and few will disagree. Here are the different kinds.

  • Brindle. This will be a dog with a dark coat, usually brown, lined with a darker shade. There may be some white but not too much.
  • Brindle and white. The same as above but with white on the usual areas; chest, legs and face.
  • Black brindle. Kind of the reverse of the normal brindle, the animal will have a black coat with lighter lines.
  • Black brindle and white. A black brindle with large amounts of white.

The Tricolour Coat

Last but not least, let's welcome dogs with three colours. There are two kinds but both have black, tan and white coats.

  • Black and tan. Even though you might register your puppy as a black and tan, it will show a small amount of white; a toe, the paws or chin. The black will be the colour that dominates the majority of the coat. Tan can show up on the cheeks, legs and chest, appearing in a similar fashion to the tan markings of the Dobermann Pincher.
  • Black tan and white. Perhaps the “official” tri coloured Bull Terrier, the animal's black coat will have large white areas (muzzle, chest, neck and legs). Tan will appear in the same places as with the normal black and tan dogs.

How to Polish That Coat

It doesn't matter what colour your Bull Terrier is, their coat is easy to care for. This short-haired breed enjoys low-maintenance grooming and the dogs normally love the attention. Brushing is also necessary once in a while since Bull Terriers tend to shed. How many times a dog is bathed is up to the owner, but over-washing is not a good idea. Scrub to suit the dog's show schedule or to remove the smell from the dead rat your bullie rubbed its entire body against. Too many baths strip the coat of its natural oils, which is the secret ingredient to that seal-skin shine. When the coat is allowed to produce enough oil, a good combing will spread it all over and your dog will develop that sought-after healthy glitter.

© 2018 Jana Louise Smit


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