A Warning: Proin Drug Used for Dogs With Urinary Incontinence

Updated on October 16, 2018
Sharlee01 profile image

Sharlee's dog, Rose, was 17 when she started Proin. Sharlee believes that the drug contributed to her dog's passing.

Learn about the potentially dangerous side effects of the drug Proin.
Learn about the potentially dangerous side effects of the drug Proin. | Source

Should Your Dog Be Treated With Proin for Urinary Incontinence?

If you are currently giving your dog the drug Proin, which contains phenylpropanolamine, it's important that you review accounts from pet owners like you. After hearing their stories, you may want to reconsider giving Proin to your dog.

What Is Proin?

Proin is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs used today to help dogs with urinary incontinence, but is it safe? Some pet owner says "no." In fact, some dog owners believe that the drug's side effects lead to their dog's death.

Please be aware of the side effects of Proin.

My Dog Received Proin for Her Incontinence Problem

My dog, Rose, became incontinent when she was seventeen. I tried everything to help her out with "her problem." My vet recommended Proin as a last resort because Rose's incontinence was causing severe skin problems due to urine scalding. I started Rose on Proin and all seemed well, her accidents diminished, and her skin condition cleared.

She was on the drug for about two months when she developed seizures, so the vet recommended we take Rose off of the drug. In a matter of weeks, Rose had a severe seizure and was left immobile. She had to be put down.

I experienced lots of guilt for having used Proin on Rose. I feel as though Proin added to the progression of my dog's health problems. However, as the vet pointed out, Rose was up there in age and he felt the seizure may have come with her advanced age.

Have you ever used Proin to treat your dog's problem with urinary incontinence?

See results
Take your dog to the vet for a proper diagnosis.
Take your dog to the vet for a proper diagnosis.

What Causes Urinary Incontinence in Dogs?

There are many factors that can cause urinary incontinence in dogs. It is estimated that urethral incontinence may affect over 20% of all spayed female dogs, especially large-breed dogs. Urethral incontinence is most common in middle-aged to senior dogs, and medium to large-breed female dogs, although any dog may be affected.

Bladder storage dysfunction and bladder hypercontractility occur when the bladder contracts too often and causes small amounts of urine to leak. Urethral incontinence may also be a result of underlying neurological problems (such as nerve pathway disruption from a spinal injury) in addition to:

  • Brain disease
  • Unidentified lesions or bladder tumors
  • A urinary infection
  • Any condition that would compress the bladder or urinary tract

What Is the Most Common Cause of Urethral Disorders?

Urethral disorders, in which the muscles that close the urethra fail to contract and cause urine leakage, are frequently the result of:

  • Reproductive-hormone-responsive urinary incontinence
  • Urinary tract infections or inflammation
  • A prostatic disease (male dogs)
  • A vestibule vaginal anomaly (female dogs)

In some cases, urethral incontinence is a result of anatomic abnormalities such as a hereditary defect. Other factors include injuries or surgery that cause damage or alter the normal bladder of a dog.

Can Stress Cause Urinary Disorders?

Yes, urinary retention may result when a dog will not urinate due to stress and fear-related behavioral problems.

All of these factors can result in the bladder becoming badly distended. In the end, chronic distention will cause urinary build-up and ultimately urinary leakage.

Treatment will be based on your dog's specific diagnoses.
Treatment will be based on your dog's specific diagnoses. | Source

How to Tell If Your Dog Is Incontinent

In most cases, a dog will appear totally unaware of a urinary accident. Since urethral incontinence or urinary incontinence is the loss of voluntary control of urination, it's usually observed as involuntary leakage.

Signs of Urinary Incontinence

  • A wet bed or sleeping area.
  • As a dog ages, wet spots will start to appear more frequently on the floor or on the bed where the pet resides.
  • The dribbling of urine will be visible when the dog is walking.

How Is It Diagnosed in a Pet?

Urethral incontinence is most often diagnosed based on clinical signs, the dog's medical history, and blood and urine tests. A bladder x-ray or ultrasound is performed to search for bladder abnormalities, such as stones, tumors, and other obstructions which cause or affect normal urine follow.

Neurological tests may be performed, such as the examination of the rectum and tailbone, perineal sensation testing, and various spinal reflex testing. Urethral catheterization may also be required if urinary retention is observed to determine if there is an obstruction or another urethral abnormality present. A cystoscopy, too, may allow your vet to see an abnormality within the bladder or urethra.

Treatments for Urethral Incontinence

Medications that increase urethral sphincter tone, such as phenylpropanolamine, or hormone replacements, such as estrogen or diethylstilbestrol, are most commonly used alone and in combination. With long-term use, the dog's blood and urine should be periodically tested to ensure that there are no side effects. Your veterinarian will prescribe the best treatment for your dog's individual needs.

Prognosis Depends on Severity

The prognosis is generally good. Control of urine leakage will vary from dog to dog, however, most dogs can be managed successfully with medication and lifestyle changes, such as more frequent trips outside to void and close monitoring.

Homeopathic Remedies for Incontinence in Dogs

Do Your Research

Proin is the most commonly prescribed drug for dogs with urinary incontinence. Before you give this drug to your dog, please do your research on its side effects.

Warnings From Other Pet Owners

Here are several accounts from pet owners like you cautioning against the use of Proin:

A Word of Caution From "Boxer Fan"

In 2013, a reader by the name of Boxer Fan urged pet owners not to use Proin. Their boxer was placed on the medication for spay incontinence (2 tablets per day). The urinary issue resolved, however, their dog stopped eating, drinking, and was lethargic, breathing heavily, and vomiting. The veterinarian later suspected kidney failure, and unfortunately, their boxer was later put down. While the vet did not suspect that the drug played a part in the dog's death, the owner has urged other pet owners not to take the risk. Boxer Fan has since discovered a good amount of research that has been posted from 2009 and on regarding the side effects of Proin.

Pet Owner Suspects Proin Sped Up Her Dog's Passing

Another owner by the name of "Liz" cautioned:

"Our 5-year-old spaniel went downhill after taking Proin; she did have other medical conditions, but this seemed to speed her passing—within 7 days."

This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. It is not meant to substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, or formal and individualized advice from a veterinary medical professional. Animals exhibiting signs and symptoms of distress should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.

Please take the time to sign my guestbook.

    0 of 8192 characters used
    Post Comment

    • profile image

      Maltese 

      8 weeks ago

      Any alternative to Proin?

    • Sharlee01 profile imageAUTHOR

      Sharlee 

      2 months ago

      Thank you for your comment. Sorry to hear how ill your dog is. I know losing a dog is a hard thing to get through...

    • profile image

      Chuck Scheerer 

      2 months ago

      After vet put my dog on proin for 1.5 months she has developed kidney failure and now having to put her down because of it. Very sad. Do not use this drug.

    • Sharlee01 profile imageAUTHOR

      Sharlee 

      4 months ago

      Sorry for your loss. I know how badly this hurts. Thank you for leaving your comment, it may just save a cherished pet.

    • profile image

      Jeanie Burnett 

      4 months ago

      My sweet little Angie was rescued from a puppy mill and had lots of puppies. She is a senior now and has bladder issues and wets my bed almost every night. The vet prescribed Proin and she almost died last night!!!!!!!

    • Sharlee01 profile imageAUTHOR

      Sharlee 

      5 months ago

      I posted this very article in hopes of sharing information on Proin. Many have written me with the same sad story. The seizures, kidney failure, and more. I am very sorry for your loss. You must forgive yourselves, you had no way of knowing the drug could cause problems. It's the first drug vet prescribe for pet incontinence. In no way should you blame yourselves. Time will have you remembering the best times you spent with your little friend.

    • profile image

      Nadine Kenney 

      5 months ago

      It has been 8 months since we had to put our 14 year old Yorkie to sleep as he quickly developed kidney failure and uncontrollable Grand Mal seizures due to Proin. Our hearts are broken and we cannot forgive ourselves for trusting a temp vet and giving him Proin. This product needs to be taken off the market. It killed women and now it is killing our beloved pets.

    • Sharlee01 profile imageAUTHOR

      Sharlee 

      6 months ago

      Virginia, I am so sorry for your loss... I know exactly how you feel. So sad for you.

    • profile image

      Virginia Bergstrom 

      6 months ago

      I had to take my 13 year old girl Karma to the emergency room today to have her put to sleep. I 100 percent blame Proin. I am so upset that I didn't research this before giving it to her. I trusted my vet and she told me that there were little to no side effects. Wasn't that a joke! First I noticed the panting, then she started looking listless - staring off into space, she became restless as well. She started drinking A LOT of water. So it is Spring here and warming up so I just attributed all this to the heat. Proin worked about 95 percent of the time for about 6 weeks and then its effectiveness wore off. I called the doctor and she said to double the dosage and call her back in three days. She didn't say anything about how doubling the dosage might hurt her. So I doubled the dosage and unfortunately I didn't call back until 7 days later because I gave it a few extra days because it still wasn't working. Meanwhile I noticed that she was vomiting every other day just a little bit and that her appetite was decreasing. I figured the drug was just making her nauseous so I started giving her a little more food in the morning and a little less food at night. I called the doctor but she didn't call back for two days so she was still on the double dose. 25 mg in the am and 25 mg in the pm. She ordered a different drug for me and it was coming in the mail. So Thursday morning of last week my dog refused the drug and I said okay well it isn't working anyhow. I will wait for the new drug. So Wednesday night was her last dose. The new drug came on Friday and I never gave it to her because she started to completely refuse to eat. No dinner on Friday and no dinner on Saturday. She continued to drink a lot of water and then she started to throw up water. Another side effect I didn't notice until around Thursday was constipation. I was very worried but when she started throwing up even water then I really knew something was seriously wrong. The emergency vet tech gave fluids under the skin and an anti nausea shot. I was hoping to take her to my regular vet this morning and see what she could do for her if anything. I brought her home hoping that within a few hours she wouldn't be nauseous anymore and eat dinner. Instead she continued to throw up water and her breathing became labored. So by last night I knew that I would just be taking her to the vet to have her put to sleep. By 6 am today blood was pouring out of her anus. It was the most horrifying thing that I have ever had to endure. I wrapped her up and by 7:45 she was with the angels. This was the first time that I have ever given any of my animals medicine other than antibiotics and/or temporary pain pills. I have had dogs and cats all my life and this was absolutely awful. I wish I could do it all over again and not have given her this horrible drug. I am glad this nightmare is over but my poor baby had to suffer and I am so sorry.

    • profile image

      nevill mcinerny 

      6 months ago

      Proin worked well for Lucy, a female Doberman. There have been no noticeable side effects after about 2 years of giving her a tablet twice a day with her meals.

    • Sharlee01 profile imageAUTHOR

      Sharlee 

      10 months ago

      Patricia, From the letters I have received over the years from pet owners in regards to Proin. It seems if the pet is going to have problems with the drug, it is immediate. It also seems the pet has some underlying health issues. It appears your dog has done well on the drug. Hopefully your friend gets well soon. I know how distressing it can be when your best friend is sick.

    • profile image

      Patricia Webster 

      10 months ago

      I have been using PROIN for the past 3+ years with my Senior Rottweiler. I’ve not had any problem for the first 3 years, but about 6 weeks ago, she began vomiting, after either eating, or not. Took her to the Vet. Stats looked good. Fed her chicken and rice and took her off kibble because even when it was soaked she would still vomit. She still vomited but not as often. But, this last weekend, she has gone back to vomiting. Last night as I researched what causes vomiting in dogs - irritated stomach. So, went to bed pondering on what is causing the irritation in her tummy. She is on a thyroid pill and PROIN. That is why I am on this site because I haven’t ever really checked the side effects of this drug. She has lost weight, 10#. I am very glad to have checked this site as I am needing to renew this expensive drug, and if it is the cause of her problem then am very glad to discover it now before I spend the $45 for the small bottle of it. Thank you

    • profile image

      Kelly 

      18 months ago

      My Golden was put on Proin for bladder issues. Less that 2 weeks later we woke to her unable to stand. Stomach bloated and in pain. We had to put her to sleep. She had a complete physical and blood work done prior to starting the Proin and she was absolutely fine. I totally blame proin for her death. DO NOT USE IT!

    • Sharlee01 profile imageAUTHOR

      Sharlee 

      2 years ago

      I am so sorry you did not see this blog before you started your husky on Proin. My dog also was a victim, she died very shortly after taking the drug. She had kidney failure and seizures. had to also put her down....

    • profile image

      Dezmcelheny 

      2 years ago

      DO NOT GIVE YOUR DOG PROIN!

      My very healthy 10 year old female husky started leaking and the vet said Proin would fix it with no side affects except hyper and moody. Well, not even 4 months into the meds she had kidney failure and had to be put down! The worst effing day of my families life! Try telling your kids (ages 6&8) that their dog is dying and there's nothing we can do to help her!!

      There has to be another med out there or something to do to help them!! Anyone know of anything??

    • profile image

      Mickey R 

      4 years ago

      My pug Bella was on Proin for three years. It worked beautifully for her. She died 11 months ago, completely unrelated to Proin (a necropsy was done, and Metacam was the problem). Her sister Maggie started taking Proin a month ago, and now acts like she is in pan all the time (stares at me a LOT, will not sit still very long, just doesn't seems herself). Taking her back to the vet to have BP checked and a panel, but her arthritis is quite advanced, so am not at all convinced Proin is to blame. Still, glad to have seen this page because I honestly had not considered Proin as a possible cause and was simply at the point of trying to determine if Maggie's arthritis has just made it to the stage where we cannot manage her pain anymore.

    • profile image

      anggot 

      4 years ago

      Hi... My dog jada is a black lab. Not even two yet..has urine inconcintence.. A week ago I started her on proin.. Two nights in a row head seizures.. 2nd night was worse. Taking her off it tmrw.. Vet said that shouldn't be a cause. Well happened again.

    • profile image

      hazelvin 

      4 years ago

      Much better than Euthanasia,

    • profile image

      michael-obrien-music 

      4 years ago

      I have been treating my 13-year-old labâpitbull mix with Proin for six months now. It has been her saving grace, as well as mine - because I no longer have to launder her dog bed on an almost, daily basis (sometimes multiple times a day) AND she no longer has to sleep in her own urine. I for one, am very thankful that my veterinarian recommended this medication for my dog. That being said, I think that the jury might still be out, on whether the benefits of Proin outweigh the potential side-effects IF your dog has abnormal levels in his/her blood panel/lab results. Therefore, I simply used my common sense. Before putting her on Proin, I had a complete blood panel done to make sure all of her levels were normal. Reason being, IF Proin is going to potentially harm a dog, it's likely going to be a dog that already had some sort of issue that comes naturally with old age, and had simply yet to be diagnosed. This seems to be the general consensus among those who actually know what they are talking about, and are worth listening to.

      Like any person who makes their decisions using research-based, scientific evidence (instead of one, anecdotal account of some pet owner's 10+ year old dog) I can't really take most of the "warnings" about Proin seriously. From all I have read, the paranoia comes mostly from pet owners who are failing to take countless other factors into consideration when blaming their Vet's recommendation of Proin on their dog's death. In fact, I have read some astonishingly stupid comments/assumptions made by people in this very thread. To say that "My 17 year old dog died shortly after being placed on Proin, so I blame Proin and my Vet" is really just a highly emotional and irrational conclusion reached by a grieving person who clearly does not understand that sometimes, a 17 year old dog just dies because he is 17 years old. I'm sorry to be so insensitive, but if you are going to have a dog on Proin, NSAID's or any other meds that come with potentially lethal side effects...you need to do a blood panel every six months. If your dog has issues with its kidneys, or digestive tract or high blood pressure etc - and you don't know this because you're medicating your dog without taking the necessary precautions...well then you cannot really blame your vet or the medication....because you just can't KNOW this, by any means.

      So here is where I stand. My dog (Gretyl) is 13. I am a mountaineer, and Gretyl has been with me, at every major peak I have summited in Southern California, since she was a pup. The vet described the results of her latest blood panel as "amazing" and "off the charts" for a 13 year old dog. I guess all that hiking throughout her life kept her very healthy, despite the toll it took on her poor hips. But even now, with the NSAID's, she can still manage stairwells and long walks without ANY problems...I just can't climb mountains with her anymore. SO - if Gretyl suddenly strokes out, or has her kidneys fail - or anything along these lines, then I might have reason to be suspicious of Proin.

      OR - If anyone else out there can attest to have a perfectly healthy dog (proven by a blood panel, not just assumed, because you "see" nothing wrong) who succumbed to something terrible soon after being put on Proin - then again, I'd have reason to be suspicious. But I have yet to see ANY compelling evidence that makes me feel like I need to worry, beyond making sure her levels remain normal, by doing a panel every 6 months.

      My two cents...happy dog days people :)

    • profile image

      dhmsuzyqangel 

      4 years ago

      i JUST TOOK MY 4 YR OLD AUSSIE TO THE VET FOR INCONTINENCE AND WAS PRESCRIBED PROIN. FORTUNATELY i ONLY GAVE HER 1 25 MG. THEN i STARTED RESEARCHING IT......DO NOT GIVE IT TO YOUR DOG....IT'S a KILLER.

    • profile image

      dennismcmahen 

      5 years ago

      Our Sammie has been on Proin since shes been 4 months old, she is now 10 years old.

      Sammie developed seizure disorder when she turned 6 years old. No tumor, no head trauma.

      She has seizures every 4/5 weeks.I believe that I'm going to try to wean her down off of Proin to see if her seizure pattern changes. Any comments will be appreciated.

    • profile image

      anonymous 

      5 years ago

      My four-year old Lab Mix has been on Proin for a couple of weeks. The first day I gave her three tablets and it really knocked her out. Now I give her one in the morning and one in the evening and her behavior and eating habits have been fine. She's playful and has a great appetite. The incontinence has stopped. The one thing that I have noticed that's concerning is that there are some red spots that have shown up in the brown parts of her eyes. And her eyes seem more bloodshot in the white area. I haven't spoken to the vet yet. He told me to give her three for awhile, then down to two and then to one. I immediately went to two because of the lethargy at three tablets, but I may keep her on two for a few more days and then go to one and see how we do. I haven't seen any of the bad side effects that I've read about, but that doesn't mean it couldn't happen. I'm just going to stay very aware and watch her.

    • profile image

      anonymous 

      5 years ago

      I have a female German Shepherd mix 4yrs old who has just started having incontinence problems while she sleeps. My vet tested her urine for infection but it came back clean so she prescribed Proin, 75mg 1/2 tablet twice a day. This morning I gave my dog 1/2 tablet with her food, 3hrs later she threw up (which is very unusual for this dog). After researching Proin on the Web and reading about the side effects I'm going to return the remaining pills and talk to the vet about another solution.

    • profile image

      anonymous 

      5 years ago

      My 5 year old Newfoundland was given Proin. She became lethargic, wouldn't eat and her stools were very dark. The day after I stopped giving her this drug, she started to eat again and she is playing with her toys and she has life back in her eyes. I was never told of any side effects to this drug. I hope this has not caused her any damage.

    • profile image

      anonymous 

      5 years ago

      My 5yr old min poodle has been having incontinence issues when she sleeps. Started her on Proin last Tuesday. She was tested for an uti but was clear. She started refusing to eat, had dark runny stools, started vomiting yellowish bile. Lethargic, and just doesn't feel like her usual self. Am taking her off the drug immediately.

    • profile image

      anonymous 

      6 years ago

      I think there comes a time in a dog's life whereby almost NO medicine should be given. I am totally being dramatic because I have a 14 year old and I have read so much about medicines being bad for this that or the other. After reading this...I am going to keep the diapers on her. I don't want to even take a chance. I cannot afford to have her heart looked at to see if she could even handle any medicine. Thanks so much for posting.

    • Sharlee01 profile imageAUTHOR

      Sharlee 

      8 years ago

      I am sad to post that I used Proin for my dogs incontinence problem. "Rose" was 16, and having a real problem with incontinence. She actually would void in her sleep, which caused a severe skin scolding. I had little choice but to try Proin. I tried every alternative. Rose had a stroke about two months of starting Proin, and passed on. I have to believe her age and weak condition caused the stroke, and ultimate death. However, I will never be sure if Proin aided the progression of the stroke. Please be aware of the side effect's of Proin, one of the side effect's is stroke.

    • profile image

      anonymous 

      8 years ago

      My 16 year old westie was having problems with incontinence. She would wet where ever she fell asleep, day and night. The problem was getting severe. The vet put her on Proin. the dose was 12.5 mg 3 times a day. From the first dose the accidents stopped. However, the second day after she began her treatment, she became very agitated panting, and not being able to rest.

      I cut the dose in half, and saw no improvement in her agitation. She still had no problems with inconstancy. I was about to give up... I again cut the dose to 3.12, 1/8 of a 25 mg tab. This small dose worked, no more accidents, no more agitation. I suggest that if one chooses to use Proin, start at a low dose, and increase if needed.

    • Sharlee01 profile imageAUTHOR

      Sharlee 

      9 years ago

      My dog is starting to have problems with urinary incontinence. She is 16, and her vet checked her out, and claims it's her age... It seems to help by limiting her water after 7pm.

      and getting her out to void every 3 waking hours. Any tips would be appreciated.

    working

    This website uses cookies

    As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, pethelpful.com uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

    For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at: https://pethelpful.com/privacy-policy#gdpr

    Show Details
    Necessary
    HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
    LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
    Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
    AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
    HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
    Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
    CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
    Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the googleapis.com or gstatic.com domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
    Features
    Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
    Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
    Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
    PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
    MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
    Marketing
    Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
    Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
    Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
    Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
    Statistics
    Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
    ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
    Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)