This Exotic Pet is Legal in Your State
You might have heard from someone that exotic pets or so-called wild animals are illegal to own as pets, but this is exactly like saying it is illegal to hunt animals. We know of course that it depends on which animal you are talking about (and when). Some also require specific permits and these rules vary by each state. Exotic animal laws are similar. The fact is that no one state technically bans all animals that fall under the exotic or even ‘wild’ designation. With the exception of Hawaii, a group of small islands that has an exceptionally fragile ecosystem, all states allow a various high number reptiles and birds. But when most people assume ‘exotic’ pets are illegal, they are often thinking about mammals, and that’s when the restrictions begin to pour in.
There are numerous and rather ridiculous bans on exotic mammals as pets in most states. All states prohibit the ownership of something, whether it’s a restriction on native species or exotics. Still, there are some species you’d be surprised that are still legal even if you think your state bans exotic animals, which is often stated by groups like The Humane Society of the United States or Born Free. What is one of the more interesting species you can privately own in your state?
For the purposes of this article the term 'exotic' shall refer to anything unusual, such as an animal you don't find in traditional pet stores or farms, not non-native animals.
Note: The point of this article is to list at least one interesting pet that is legal in each state, therefore it is far from comprehensive and laws change all the time. Therefore this article should not be used as a source to determine what pet is legal in your state. Laws vary based on city and county ordinances as well.
In Alabama you cannot possess any member of cervidae (deer) or foxes, raccoons, and skunks, but you can own big cats like tigers. Just be sure not to cross state lines with the animal or import one from another state, as the Federal Endangered Species Act forbids it.
Alaska: Chimpanzees (until 6 years ago)
Very surprisingly, while Alaska had laws banning non-human primates there was an exemption for chimpanzees, the most difficult and dangerous primate to own of all. But that changed in 2010. Now the state has some of the strictest and pathetic bans on animals in the U.S. Now only toucans, 'non-feral' ungulates like bison, elk, camels, reindeer, and oxen, and hedgehogs are the most 'exotic' animals that remain legal. The legal animals are listed and all others are prohibited.
- No Monkeys Allowed, Alaska Department of Fish and Game
Alaska Wildlife News is an online magazine published by the Alaska Department of Fish and Game
The state bans many many animals as pets, including but certainly not limited to chipmunks (all squirrels), prairie dogs, deer, foxes, sloths, opossums, and anteaters, but surprisingly allows wolfdogs (also known as wolf hybrids) while prohibiting all other animals other than dogs and cats in the carnivora order. Although it sounds like a wolfdog might be ‘partially domesticated’, a true high content animal would be indistinguishable to the average person from a ‘pure wolf’. In fact, many zoos exhibit these wolfdogs as ‘wolves’. Therefore, to a non-expert, these animals are essentially wolves and they are definitely not less ‘dangerous’ than ‘pure’ wolves (if anything, more-so than). Arizona used to allow some primates as pets, but that has unfortunately changed.
If you want to own pets that are native to your state, pack your bags and move to Arkansas where you can own native animals such as bobcats, foxes, raccoons, and coyotes. This is rather uncommon among the states that tend to fiercely prohibit warm-blooded species that are native to North America. This includes states that are ‘lax’ on so-called exotic pets such as Nevada (where you can have tigers and elephants). However, in Arkansas only 6 of these animals per household is allowed, and you cannot buy or import foxes, they must be rescued from the wild or given to you.
California: Savannah cats
Exotic pet owners dread this state. It is royalty in the preposterous, should-be-criminal-animal ban kingdom. This is a state that bans ferrets under the guise of protecting the environment, even though its inhabitants regularly defy the law and invasive ferrets have not been observed. Don’t come to California unless you’re only interested in birds and reptiles. But surprisingly, while many states prohibit them, all generations of Savannah cats (a domesticated cat and serval hybrid) and wolfdogs that are not first generation are allowed.
Colorado: Kangaroos and wallabies
This is another frown-face state if you are an exotic enthusiast, but here is a good example of a state where exotics are supposedly not allowed, but you can still keep very exotic animals like the iconic kangaroo, wallaroo, or wallaby.
Connecticut: Patagonian mara
There was a famous exotic pet-related incident where a chimpanzee severely mauled its c arataker’s friend, but that animal was grandfathered in. Connecticut’s bans are also extensive and ridiculous, and getting exempted as a licensed exhibitor or educational facility is difficult. The banned lists almost all interesting exotic pets, but in the order rodentia, hamsters, mice, guinea pigs, Patagonian mara, American beaver, dwarf hamster, chinchilla and rats are exempted. Patagonian mara are large rodents that look like deer.
Exotic mammals non-native to Delware require a permit and the state veterinarian gets to decide if such a permit will be issued based on the species' potential to be injurious or damaging to the environment. Exempted species are "Chinchillas, Degus, Ferrets, Gerbils, Guinea pigs, Hamsters, Hedgehogs, Mice, Norway rats, Possums, Rabbits and Sugar gliders".
In Florida, animals are grouped by class 1, class 2, and class 3 designations, with class 1 animals requiring the most qualifications to acquire. Class 1 includes tigers, bears, and chimpanzees and they cannot be ‘pets’. Marmosets are tiny monkeys that are class 3 wildlife, and a permit to own them in Florida is pretty easy to get, just answer some questions on the free application about the animal’s care, what you would do in event of an emergency, and your knowledge of the species.
Georgia considers nearly every exotic animal to be 'inherently dangerous', regardless of whether or not that is actually true. For instance, wallabies and non-domesticated rabbits are on the list that require a permit, and it's not clear if this permit is obtainable for a typical pet owner. However, in the order Artiodactyla (even-toed ungulates), bison, which actually are dangerous, water buffalo, and llamas are exempted, probably because they are seen as livestock.
Only several birds and aquarium-dwelling species are legal exotic pets in this unique state, with peafowl being considered poultry. The list of mammals legal to import into the islands consists of guinea pigs, chinchillas, rabbits, mice and rats. No hamsters, snakes, ferrets, and gerbils are allowed. The reason? These animals have the potential to become an out of control invasive species in the island’s climate, just like the always legal domesticated cat that people are even permitted to let free roam. When it comes to banning pets due to environmental concerns, an animal’s popularity can cancel out any level of damage said species causes.
Idaho and Illinois: deer
In Idaho, “Wildlife is defined as "Any animal generally living in a state of nature except, domestic bison, domestic cervidae, domestic fur bearing animals, and fish", so if you follow importation rules, you can own elk, fallow deer, and reindeer. Most other exotics require a possession permit and it isn’t clear how easy this is to get. All cervidae appears to be legal to possess in Illinois with only entry permits and health screening required to import them into the state, as they are considered livestock.
As of 2015, and possibly to change in 2016, the state Department of Natural Resources stopped issuing permits for wild animals and regulating their ownership following a February ruling that said it didn’t have the authority to regulate wild animals. Venomous snakes, big cats, bears, primates, deer, and other animals used to require a wild animal possession permit but currently do not with this court order.
- Lack of Indiana exotic animal regulations raising concerns - Washington Times
Some Indiana officials and others are worried about the loss of state oversight for exotic animals since a state appeals court ruling that struck down regulations on fenced deer-hunting preserves.
The 'usual suspects' are all unreasonably banned in this state without a permit, and to acquire such a permit many rules apply, such as implanting a tracking device, maintaining insurance, paying fees and undergoing inspections. However skunks are legal as long as they are captive-bred.
So-called dangerous wild animals are regulated but there is no mention of this unusual relative of the raccoon, which often slips through the cracks due to being unknown.
Raccoons, being rabies vectors, are illegal in most states, but Kentucky is one of the exceptions. However, raccoons cannot be imported over state lines, so the animal must come from within the state.
This state has an extensive list of prohibited species that are sadly generalist (all canids, including harmless foxes are banned as well as skunks, deer, squirrels and all non-human primates), but the family viverridae is not listed so this might technically mean civets and genets are legal. Ignorance to animal diversity, not society's acceptance of this exotic pet, are likely responsible.
Maine: sugar glider (that’s the best you can do)
Maine is a horrendous state for exotic pet owners and the restrictions on pets are as extreme as they are indefensible. This northernmost state on the mainland boasts a climate that very few animals could survive in, yet it has a very small list of mammals (gerbils, hamsters, rabbits, mice, rats, guniae pigs, chinchillas, ferrets, sugar glider, degu) that do not require a permit. Achieving a permit in Maine is said to be near impossible. Reptiles are confined to select species as well.
This South American anteater is not listed on Maryland's highly inclusive list of banned animals, which includes raccoons, foxes, skunks, primates, felines other than domesticated cats, and alligators.
Massachusetts: Flying squirrel
Unfortunately in this state there is a short list of exempted mammals. It includes the most typical pets but also hedgehogs and flying squirrels.
- 321 CMR 9:00 Exemption List | MassWildlife
321 CMR 9:00 Exemption List
Michigan: Red fox (domesticated)
Many are unaware that fur farm foxes are considered 'domesticated', however not in the way of Russian domesticated foxes that have been experimentally bred as house pets. 'Wild' foxes are not legal, but domesticated foxes in Michigan are legal as long as you obtain a health certificate.
Minnesota: African crested porcupine
Prohibited animals appear to be exclusively defined as primates, non-domesticated felines including hybrids, and bears. Rabies vectors laws or native animal prohibitions may possibly restrict skunks, raccoons, and foxes. Exotic rodents however should be legal under these rules.
Inherently dangerous members from the family felidae are defined as big cats, snow leopards, cheetah, and cougars. This does not include felines like servals, caracals, and jungle cats.
All you need to do is obtain a Wildlife Hobby Permit, and that authorizes you to hold no more than one red or grey fox, coyote, beaver, river otter, Eastern grey squirrel, bobcat,, badger, or opossum for personal use.
Montana: Two-toed sloth
Montana has three categorizations: uncontrolled species, controlled species which require a permit, and prohibited species. Strangely enough, uncontrolled species which can be traded and possessed freely with no permit include pygmy hedgehogs, degu, jungle cat, serval, sugar gliders, two-toed sloth, Bennet's and Tammar wallaby.
- Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks :: Noncontrolled Species
This state specifically allows genets, elands, elk, fox, jerboa, and reindeer to be imported.
Nevada bans some aquatic species, all foxes, some other native species, and some reptiles. Everything else goes! Wolves, big cats, primates, elephants, ect. The state, home of Siegfried and Roy, has a large animal entertainment industry with many private owners as well as a reluctance against governmental overreach, and this might be the reason these laws have survived for so long.
New Hampshire: Ostrich
This large African bird is on the non-controlled species list in New Hampshire. The state lists many species as controlled including genets, wallabies, and anteaters.
New Jersey: Skunk
It is highly unusual for a state in the northeast, but raccoons and skunks, both prominent rabies vectors, are legal if they are purchased from a licensed breeder and if you obtain a captive game permit.
- NJDEP Division of Fish & Wildlife - Captive Game Species Permit FAQs
Captive Game Species Permit FAQs - NJ Division of Fish and Wildlife.
New Mexico: Munjac deer
I can only confirm that it is unlawful for a person to possess non-domesticated felines, primates, crocodiles, alligators, and wolves in New Mexico. The state may allow other animals under difficult conditions. One source states that deer are legal without a permit. One small popular pet deer species is the muntjac.
New York: fennec fox
While New York is considered in exotic pet circles to be a 'ban state' many non-native animals like wallabies, kinkajou, and sloth are most likely legal because they are not a member of the families that are prohibited, ursidae (bears), felidae (wild cats), canidae (wild canines) and primates. Fennec foxes are the only non-domesticated member of canidae because owners of the tiny foxes lobbied for them and brought them to meet legislators while they conceptualized the bill. This proves that common sense can enter the brains of elected officials when looking at the harmless animal in the flesh.
North Carolina: Lions
If you want to keep a fennec fox or domesticated skunk without a USDA license in North Carolina you're out of luck, because the tiny animals are rabies vectors, despite these pets never having been found with rabies, but you can have a lion, tiger, bear, and numerous other species as long as you live in a county that doesn't prohibit it.
North Dakota: Russian lynx
Russian lynx, along with emu, ostrich, ranch foxes, ferrets, and others, are considered to be domesticated and 'alternative livestock'. They require no license and the owner only needs to comply with health requirements such as being screened for certain diseases by a vet.
After an unstable man freed several exotic animals Ohio went from an extremely lenient exotic pet state to much more restrictive. A loophole currently exempts bobcats from the ban on other felidae species and lemurs are still legal among primates.
- Ohio court says bobcat can be a housecat | Great Lakes Echo
The state Court of Appeals says that the cat is not covered by the law sparked by the 2011 release of 56 dangerous wild animals, including lions, wolves, bears, tigers and a baboon.
It's likely that many more exotic animals, possibly even large animals like bears, are legal in Oklahoma which is the foe of animal rights organizations who want more regulations (i.e. bans) for exotic animals. However civets, kangaroos, primates, and coatimundis and others are exempt from all permit and license requirements.
This state used to be somewhat exotic friendly but then they stopped issuing permits to pet owners. They categorize exotic animals and you need to call to find out what the law is. But all equidae is legal and just needs a Certificate of Veterinary Inspection when imported.
If you obtain an annual permit you can keep timber rattlesnakes and northern copperheads captured from the wild. The snakes must also be at least 42 inches in length, having 21 or more subcaudal scales.
Rhode Island: Burmese python
Burmese pythons are illegal in many states due to their size (15-20 feet) but are not listed as being illegal here.
- Rhode Island Adopts New Rules To Manage Exotic Animals
The Department of Environmental Management amends rules governing exotic animal importation and possession.
South Carolina: Venomous snakes
South Carolina is one of the nation’s only states that allows the sale and purchase of venomous snakes at reptile shows.
South Dakota: coyotes
With a permit you can possess or import any non-domestic mammal, or any hybrids thereof of the following orders, carnivora, exotic felidae, canidae, ursidae (bears) mustelidae, and hyaenidae, and various hoofed animals.
Tennessee: Capuchin monkeys
Some species in Tennessee are illegal to possess, such as bats, skunks, and owls. Others, like flying squirrels, bobcats, native mice, and native chipmunks require a TWRA permit. The species that do not require a permit surprisngly include capuchin monkeys, caimans, giraffes, sea otters, and "cervils" (servals?)
Potential owners of 'dangerous wild animals' which include bears, big cats, and great apes need to obtain a certificate of registration for that animal issued by an animal registration agency. Many other rules apply. There are many animals in Texas that are perfectly legal however and they include capybara, lemurs, genets, and small wild felids.
Ranch-raised American mink (Neovison vision) are allowed to be owned, along with other species.
Agoutis are a relatively large South American rodent, and all species are on Vermont's unrestricted species list.
Virginia: Domesticated silver fox
Virginia does not allow any foxes other than those which have fur patterns not found in the wild. This means foxes cannot be red, even if they are domesticated. The fur is how the animal is distinguished from a non-fur farm animal.
Potentially dangerous animals in the family felidae are described as only lions, tigers, captive-bred cougars, jaguars, cheetahs, leopards, snow leopards, and clouded leopards.
West Virginia: Cougar
West Virginia recently enacted regulations for 'dangerous wild animals' which allow people to apply for permits to keep them. Animals that aren't coyotes, minks, weasels, muskrats, beavers, opossums, polecats, otters, red and gray foxes, skunks, bobcat, fishers, and raccoons can be kept as a pet.
Wisconsin specifically names chipmunks, pocket gophers, mice, moles, opossums, porcupines, rats, voles, ground squirrels, red squirrels, and weasels as legal to possess without a license.
All bears appear to be legal according to Wyoming's exotic animal code except grizzly and black bears. Mountain lions are also named while other big cats are not.