Four Health Issues Found in Draft Horses
Draft horses are magnificent animals and their popularity is on the rise. What some new draft horse owners might not know is that both purebreds and draft crossbreds, such as the Sport horse, are susceptible to certain health issues not so common in light horse breeds. Being aware and following specialized management programs can help prevent diseases like azoturia, shivers, grease heel, and junctional epidermolysis bullosa.
1. Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa
Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (JEB) is an incurable disease that is caused by a mutated gene found in 30 to 35 percent of Belgian Draft horses. In this condition the horse lacks the skin protein Laminin-5. The fatal disease causes foals to die within a week after they are born. Layers of skin are unable to stick to each other, and patches of hair and skin begin to rub off at pressure points, spreading to bigger and bigger patches. The hooves will also slough off and ulcers form in the mouth and on the tongue. As soon as it is known to have JEB, a foal should be euthanized, as this is an agonizing disease.
In 2002 researchers found where the gene site of the mutation was located. Now a DNA test can determine if breeding stock are carriers. If a mare and stallion are both carriers they should not be mated.
Azoturia, also known as Monday Morning Disease, is a metabolic disorder common in draft horses. It usually occurs after the horse has had time off and then is put back to work. The horse exhibits symptoms of heavy sweating, nervous behavior, rapid pulse, and muscle stiffness, especially in the hindquarters, soon after beginning work. The horse exhibits severe pain and muscle spasms. The horse’s urine will be dark as the result of red pigment from the muscle cells that are released into the bloodstream as the muscle fibers break down. If the horse is forced to continue work, the symptoms worsen and the horse collapses. The horse can die from kidney failure because the kidneys cannot filter the enzymes being released into the blood stream from the muscles.
Some researchers believe the cause of azoturia may be linked to Equine Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy (EPSM) which is a metabolic condition found in many draft horses where the muscle builds up glycogen and glycogen related compounds rather than using them for energy.
Dr. Elizabeth A.Valentine writes in her article “EPSM—Muscle Diseases in Draft Horses” that scientists don't yet understand what puts the draft horse over the edge into massive muscle injury, but studies of muscle from horses with signs of Monday morning disease show that EPSM is a common underlying condition.
A low carbohydrate diet is the best preventive measure for preventing EPSM. In the past, various drugs, including steroids, muscle relaxants, and minerals were used to treat the horse once it had an episode. The EPSM diet has shown to be very effective in preventing further episodes when started in early stages of the disease. Exercise is also important to the recovery of draft horses suffering azoturia. They should not be in a tie stall, but preferably be outside where they can move around.
Shivers, or shivering is a neuromuscular condition found most prevalently in draft horses and draft crosses. It is easy to diagnose due to the unique symptoms. The symptoms are sudden jerking or trembling of the hindquarters, in which the leg flexes toward the horse’s belly and the tail lifts and trembles in a pumping motion while the horse is backing. The horse cannot back up because the hind legs get stuck in an upward, flexed position.
For years veterinarians felt there was a connection with shivers and EPMS, but the 2007 Morris Animal Foundation’s Equine Research Report states equine polysaccharide storage myopathy does not cause shivers, although both diseases are common in draft horses and warmbloods. There is speculation that shivers is inherited, can be a result of neural lesions left from infectious diseases like flu or strangles, or perhaps it can be caused by trauma. Treatment is limited to massage, acupuncture, and exercise. Adequate vitamin E and the mineral selenium in the diet seem to be important in controlling episodes. Unfortunately shivering is usually a chronic disease that progressively gets worse if the horse continues to be worked.
4. Grease Heel
Grease heel, or scratches, also called mud fever, is a type of dermatitis on the back of the pastern. This is a less serious disease that the other ones mentioned, but can be persistent with draft horse breeds that have a lot of feathering. It is most often found in the hind legs. It is believed that the long hair on the back of the pastern coupled with constant moisture and poor hygiene are the causes. Symptoms are inflammation and oozing fluid that becomes crusty and scabby. By the time it is noticed it has usually been there a while.
Treatment includes cutting away all the long hair, then washing the area with warm water and mild soap, scrubbing to remove the scabs. A good home remedy for mild cases is to cover the affected area with a salve made of 1 part Neosporin, 1 part cortisone cream and 2 parts zinc oxide (baby diaper ointment). Keep the horse in a dry and clean environment. In advanced cases the vet will usually prescribe an antibiotic-corticosteroid ointment or even give the horse antibiotic injections. If left untreated it will spread around the coronet band to the front of the foot.
To solve these draft horse health issues, collect as much knowledge as possible so you can give your draft horse the best care. It is important to be a responsible breeder, choosing only healthy mares and stallions. Even if you do not own a horse you can help by making a donation to research institutes like the Morris Foundation and universities with equine research programs.