Green Spotted Puffer Fish Care, Feeding and Tank Setup
The Green Spotted Puffer Fish
The green spotted puffer (GSP) is a fish with unique needs and care requirements. Their spotted yellow-green backs make them an attractive choice for home aquariums, and their interesting behaviors will separate them from most any other fish you have ever owned.
In the wild, green spotted puffers (Tetraodon nigroviridis or (syn) Dichotomyctere nigroviridis ) are found in Southeast Asia where they inhabit rivers and estuaries. In captivity, unfortunately they are often the victims of poorly educated pet shops and aquarium owners.
Perhaps more than any other fish species, GSPs serve as an example of why it is so important to research aquarium fish before bringing them home. In this case, failing to do so can result in the demise of your puffer and perhaps all other fish in your tank.
If you currently have one of these little dynamos in your possession you are probably here to learn more about how to care for your puffer.
If you have yet to bring a puffer into your home, read this article thoroughly and think seriously about whether or not you want to make the commitment. If you choose to do so and follow through, you’ll finding puffer ownership to be highly fun and rewarding.
Of course, it goes without saying that you should be practicing proper aquarium maintenance in any tank you own, but this is especially important with the green spotted puffer. Understanding puffer behavior, care, and tank requirements will go a long way when it comes to making sure your puffer lives a long and happy life.
This guide is intended to serve as a basic introduction to green spotted puffer care and to help you avoid many of the common mistakes made by first-time puffer owners.
Green Spotted Puffer Tank Mates and Tank Size
In most cases, tank mates are not advisable when keeping a GSP. The green spotted puffer is a highly aggressive fish that may attack and kill any other fish or critter in the tank. Many puffer keepers feel they should not be kept with any other fish species or even other puffers.
It is usually wise to keep a GSP alone in a single-specimen tank. They do not belong in a community aquarium, even as juveniles, and even if the pet store said they are freshwater fish. They are not, and even keeping them with other aggressive tropical fish is asking for disaster.
Some puffer owners keep a pair of puffers in a tank 55-gallons or larger, and some owners even have success keeping their puffer with other fish species that tolerate brackish water. However, the potential for conflict always exists whenever your puffer is housed with other fish, and the risk hardly seems worth it.
How big does a green spotted puffer get?
GSPs are thick, powerful fish that require a lot of space. Although they only grow to around six inches in length as adults, the minimum tank size for a single puffer is 30 gallons. However, 55 gallons is preferred and will allow your fish optimal room for swimming and exploring.
Green spotted puffers kept in aquariums require brackish water through most of their lives. In wild conditions, they start in freshwater and migrate to brackish or marine conditions as adults. As far as you are concerned, this means you are likely going to have to increase the salinity of your tank water as your puffer ages.
Green Spotted Puffer Supplies
You’ll need a few specific items to ensure proper aquarium setup conducive to a healthy puffer. While regular gravel substrate is fine, some keepers like to use crushed coral to keep the pH levels of the tank water within the right parameters. As with any aquarium, it is smart to have a water-testing kit to makes sure you are on the mark.
You also need a supply of marine salt. Don’t confuse this with the aquarium salt used as a conditioner for freshwater tanks. Marine salt is used for saltwater aquariums, and you’ll want to keep it in bulk bags.
One of the most important pieces of equipment you will need is a hydrometer. These are inexpensive devices used to measure the specific gravity (salinity) of your tank water, and it is a key to ensuring you are creating the right brackish environment for your fish. Young puffers require a specific gravity of about 1.006, where adults need a reading of about 1.02.
Basic Water Parameters for Green Spotted Puffer
- Temperature: 78-82°F
- pH: 7.5-8.5
- Specify Gravity Range: 1.004 - 1.022
- Weekly water changes to keep water clean
An Adult Green Spotted Puffer
Bringing Your Puffer Home
Be sure to ask the store what type of water your puffer is housed in when you purchase it. This is very important as a starting point for putting together your GSP’s new home. Often stores keep them in fresh water as juveniles, and this is important to know.
Tossing your new fish into a brackish setup when it is used to freshwater would be a shock to its system, and potentially disastrous. If it lived in freshwater at the fish store, you can start it in freshwater and gradually increase the salinity with each water change.
You should never add a GSP, or any fish, to an uncycled tank. If you don’t know how to cycle your tank you need to do some research and make sure this is accomplished before you bring your new fish home.
Because most puffers are wild-caught, be on the lookout for parasites. Ask the fish store if they have taken any steps to combat any parasites their fish may have, and be prepared to dose your baby puffer with the appropriate medication if necessary.
Here are a few more points new puffer keepers should be aware of:
- GSP’s are known to make a mess when eating. Be prepared to clean up!
- It’s not a bad idea to over-filter your tank. You can choose a filter rated for a larger tank, or you can use two smaller filters that in conjunction will move more water than a single filter.
- Plan to perform partial water changes on a weekly basis. About a third of the total volume of water in the tank should be replaced with clean water.
- Do not add sea salt directly to your tank as it may harm your fish. Mix it with clean, freshwater in a bucket and allow it to dissolve before adding it to the tank gradually.
- You will need to rely on artificial decorations as few widely available live plants thrive in brackish water. Consider aquascaping with plenty of tunnels and caves for your puffer to explore.
- Some puffer keepers like moving the décor of their tank around every few weeks, giving their fish a new environment to explore.
What do green spotted puffers eat?
Your GSP will not eat flake food like typical tropical fish. You will need to feed meaty, frozen foods such as blood worms and krill. Thaw the food in tank water before offering it, and make sure you only add as much as you puffer will eat in a few minutes.
Green spotted puffers are notorious hunters, and feeding food such as live ghost shrimp will give your fish some stimulation it can’t get from frozen foods.
Do green spotted pufferfish have teeth?
No, but they do have a bony plate in their mouth that grows continuously. Wild, adult puffers eat crustaceans, and foods with hard shells are an important part of their diets. Without hard foods to wear the plate down puffers may eventually become incapacitated to the point that they can no longer eat.
You won’t feed your baby puffer shellfish of course, but you are going to want to start it off eating snails fairly early. Pond snails are pests, and if you’ve ever had them in a freshwater aquarium you know how hard they are to get rid of. These are the critters your puffer will munch up if you give it the chance.
The fish tanks in many pets stores have all the snails they can stand, and if you ask nicely they are often willing to give them to you for free.
Raising Snails as Puffer Food
Instead of running out to fish stores for snails all the time, you may find it worth your while to breed your own. This isn’t as hard as it sounds. All you need is a 10-gallon tank with basic filtration, lighting, and substrate and you are ready to build a snail colony to harvest for your puffer’s feedings.
Breeding snails is very easy: Add a few to a tank and within a couple of weeks you’ll have baby snails everywhere. Pond snails are willing to eat almost anything, but you need to feed them algae wafers and plenty of veggies so they provide quality nutrition for your puffer.
Care for your snail tank just as you would any fish tank, and be sure to perform partial water changes weekly. Pond snails are pretty hardy, so you aren’t likely to kill many even with poor tank maintenance, but once again you want to make sure the snails you feed your puffer are as healthy as possible.
You should aim to feed snails about the size of your puffer’s eye. Any larger and he won’t be able to crack the snail’s shell. With a little perseverance, he may still be able to get the snail out of there and eat it, but he will miss out on the benefit of the hard shell wearing away at the plate in his mouth.
When your GSP is a baby it can eat every day, but as it gets older you should move to an alternate day feed/fast schedule. As your puffer gets older you may want to try feeding clams, crabs or shrimp. Never leave uneaten food in the tank to decay and do your best to remove any shells that are left behind. Uneaten bits of food will pollute the tank water, making a toxic environment for your fish.
It is important to note that sometimes it seems like puffers don’t have an off switch when it comes to eating. They will continue to eat as long as the food is available, and their bellies will blow up until they look like pudgy little balloons. This is kind of comical, but never let it go too far. Be aware of how much food you are giving your fish, and do not let him overeat too much.
Green Spotted Puffer FAQ
Are green spotted puffers freshwater fish?
GSPs can live in freshwater as juveniles but must eventually become acclimated to brackish conditions as adults. Acclimation should be done slowly over time to be sure not to cause undue stress for the fish.
Can green spotted puffers live in saltwater?
While most puffers live in brackish water, some puffer owners keep their adult fish in full marine setups. Again, this is a change that should occur slowly over time, so the fish has a chance to become acclimated.
Are green spotted puffers poisonous to humans?
Many puffers, including the green spotted puffer, are poisonous to humans and other animals if eaten due to toxic substances they produce. However, they do not attack other animals through the use of venom or poisonous substances.
Are green spotted puffers aggressive?
Green spotted puffers are highly aggressive, and there is a good chance they will attack and kill any other fish in the tank with them, including other GSPs. For that reason, most puffer keepers house their fish in single-specimen tanks.
What can live with a green spotted puffer?
Despite their aggressive nature, there are stories of GSPs living with other fish that can tolerate brackish conditions such as black mollies. However, these situations are exceptional. In some cases, two puffers may live in the same tank provided there is ample room and decorations that limit visibility.
Do green spotted puffers puff up?
Yes. When GSPs become frightened or agitated, they “puff” by filling their bodies with air. Never make a puffer do this intentionally. Puffing is a defense mechanism and the last resort for evading predators. It is highly stressful for the fish.
How do you handle a green spotted puffer?
Handling your puffer is something you should never have to do. Once it is in its new home, it should stay for the rest of its life. However, practically there may come times where you need to move your fish tank. In those rare cases, do not net your fish. Instead, herd it into a good-sized container and scoop it out along with the tank water.
Why is my green spotted puffer turning black?
When puffers turn black, it is a sign of stress. While the stress may or may not be warranted, it is felt by the fish all the same. If your puffer always has a gray or black belly, it may be a sign that something is wrong in the tank, and it is time to review tank management practices.
How long do green spotted puffers live?
GSPs can live for over a decade, so if you keep your puffer healthy, it is with you for the long haul! Some puffer keepers report their experience with their fish as more like owning a dog or cat than a fish.
Additional Green Spotted Puffer Care Considerations
As you can see from this article, owning and caring for a green spotted puffer takes a bit more time and energy than just about any other aquarium fish. You need to make sure it has the appropriate tank set up, water parameters, and food, and if you let things slip if can be curtains for puffer.
If you really feel a GSP is the fish for you, don’t let any of this scare you off. They are among the most rewarding and enjoyable fish to own, and worth the extra work. However, if you are new to fish keeping you may want to start small with a betta fish or other tropical species.
For those who are ready, good luck caring for your green spotted puffer!
Green Spotted Puffer Poll
Are you ready for the commitment of owning a GSP?
This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. It is not meant to substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, or formal and individualized advice from a veterinary medical professional. Animals exhibiting signs and symptoms of distress should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.