Top 10 Mistakes New Fish Hobbyists Make

Updated on February 19, 2015

1) Not Treating Tap Water Properly (Or at All)

Tap water has chlorine—safe for humans, a death sentence for aquatic creatures. Most of us learned this early on; either tap water must sit out for 24 hours so the chlorine evaporates, or treat it with one of the numerous dechlorinaters out there to get rid of the chlorine instantly.

But chlorine isn’t the only danger in tap. There can be ammonia and nitrites in tap water (again, safe—just barely—for humans), which is why more experienced hobbyists use such dechlorinators as Prime, a treatment that detoxifies these poisonous chemicals in addition to removing chlorine.

There may be other dangers that cannot be treated by liquid in a bottle. For example, extremely high or extremely low pH, heavy metals, and high nitrates can exist in drinking water, the last being the worst offender (as partial water changes would be pointless). If these levels are dangerous, most would suggest a R.O. system that hooks up to your pipes in order to filter out these pollutants.

2) Not Cycling New Tanks Before Adding Fish

This mistake is way too common, and ties in with the fact that a lot of people don’t know about the nitrogen cycle. We were taught we must perform partial water changes in order to remove fish waste, before it compromises the fish’s health, but it isn’t that simple. The truth is fish are constantly living in their own filth; they urinate and defecate every day. So how do we get away with performing partial water changes? How do fish last so long before then? Answer: The Nitrogen Cycle.

A natural process built over time, beneficial bacteria eats toxic ammonia produced by fish waste, turning ammonia into nitrites, another toxin (albeit less toxic), and then the bacteria eats all nitrites, turning them into nitrates, the least harmful and only toxic at 30-40ppm. So a chain follows in this natural system, turning the toxic presence into a safe one, until nitrates (the end result) get too high, which is the point of performing water changes; we do it to reduce nitrates.

However, you don’t have this beneficial bacterium when you set up a new tank. In order to build this system, you must have water, a running filter, and ammonia to start the process. It takes anywhere from 4—8 weeks for the cycle to complete, and then it will be safe for fish. Details of performing a fishless cycle can be found here.

Of course, a lot of people don’t like the idea of having a running aquarium for 1-2 months without anything living in it, and will resort in putting hardy fish in to help regulate ammonia and the cycle, but I discourage this. You will lose those fish eventually during the procedure, and it’s just cruel.

If you are too impatient to wait, you can buy beneficial bacteria in a bottle, and reduce the 4-8 weeks to a week.

3) Too Few Water Changes and No Gravel Vacuuming

Doesn’t matter how good your filtration is, the end result is always the same: nitrates. Unless you have nitrate-absorbing filter media, only partial water changes with low to no nitrates will reduce them significantly, giving your fish a breath of fresh air—so to speak. No matter how light the biological load is, you can’t get away with monthly water changes and expect healthy fish. Nitrate poisoning will kill and add even more nitrates to the water (from the carcasses), in addition to causing mini cycles.

You can get away with biweekly water changes, but the amount changed will have to be a big percentage, and this depends on water and waste ratio. It’s better to perform small weekly water changes than large biweekly ones, but it can be done with a light bio load.

If you’re going to siphon out the water, why not vacuum the substrate while you’re at it? If you don’t regularly vacuum the substrate, waste builds up over time, causing nitrates to rise faster than they should.

4) 100% Water Changes

I don’t know much about bowls, but when changing out an aquarium, you want to avoid performing more than a 50% change within 24 hours, unless it’s an emergency (like exposing bleach in the tank). Some say huge changes are a don’t because you lose beneficial bacteria, but bb grows on the surfaces of objects in the water; only a tiny percent are in the water itself.

The real reason you don’t want to perform huge water changes is that you may put your fish in pH shock. PH is the level of acidity (soft water) or alkalinity (hard water--minerals) in the water, and while most ranges are tolerable for fish, fluctuating pH can kill.

Water straight out of the tap often changes in pH after being exposed to air for 24 hours. This isn’t always the case, but it is the usual. My tap comes out at 7.4. Twenty-four hours later in a cup, it’s 8.4. It was this in reverse in my last home.

PH shock will stress and potentially kill fish, especially if their immune system wasn't up to par to begin with. When changing pH, it must be gradual. It’s often recommended to not change your fish’s pH more than 0.3 within 24 hours, unless they are hardy fish, then you may get away with a 0.5 change. This is why small partial changes are better than big ones.

If you must perform a huge water change (if it can wait), let all the water you plan to put in the tank sit out for 24 hours.

5) Removing All Filter Media at Once and Rinsing with Tap

Most beneficial bacteria live in the filter, specifically on the filter’s media (floss, charcoal, sponge, ceramic rings). The filter may “polish” your water, keeping it clear and odorless using charcoal, but the true purpose of the filter is to keep your fish alive through the nitrogen cycle. I hate how Hang On the Back filter (HOB) companies encourage the practice of completely switching out the filter media for the sake of convenience. You are doing harm to your tank every time you replace that cartridge with a dry one, for beneficial bacteria has to be kept wet.

Instead of replacing the entire cartridge, just rinse it in order to knock off built-up debris in the floss encasement (so water can properly flow through), and just replace the active carbon if you wish to continue chemical filtration (although many consider charcoal to be a gimmick and unnecessary). While charcoal should be replaced every two weeks, the filter floss can go a month without replacing—in most cases. But if you are rinsing filter media, don’t use tap water. Chlorine kills bacteria, so instead, rinse or scrub the floss gently in a bucket of aquarium / dechlorinated water.

6) Overstocking Your Tank

When people set up a new aquarium, they get excited and want the tank to be filled with activity, but they can, without knowing it, go overboard. Just because you can squeeze 40 guppies in a 20 gallon doesn’t mean you should. Remember, the fish have to live in the tank, not you. Would you want to live in a small house with a hundred people? With piles of excrement in every room, with no escape from the wretched, poisonous air? That’s what nitrate poisoning is, and in order to avoid this with your overstocked tank you’ll need to perform large water changes several times a week. Just avoid overstocking; return fish if you can, or give them away to a friend or on craigslist.

For opinions on stocking ideas, ask on fish forums. You can also go to, and it will give you a rough estimate on stocking ideas compared to space, fish compatibility and filtration.

7) Overfeeding Fish

A lot of fish deaths are either the result of ammonia/nitrite/nitrate poisoning or overfeeding. Unlike cats and dogs and mammals in general, fish will keep eating even if their stomachs explode. In the wild, they don’t know the meaning of being full, so you can’t trust their behavior. Fish will always act hungry. They say when you feed fish, they should only eat as much as they can in 2-3 minutes (and this is for one meal a day). So if there is still food in the tank after 2-3 minutes, remove it immediately.

8) Lack of Research on Fish's Needs and Compatibility

So many people buy fish or other aquatic creatures on a whim in stores, when they need to consider the following:

How big do they get and what is the minimum size tank for this species?

What temperatures do they prefer?

What pH do they prefer?

Do they need to be in groups? If so, how many?

Are they aggressive or peaceful?

It’s not enough to know if they are freshwater or saltwater. All species have different needs. Do your research before ever adding fish to a community tank.

9) Using the Aquarium as a Nightlight

Fish need daytime and nighttime too. They sleep like any other animal, and that darkness helps them register when it’s time for bed. Fish can sleep with the lights on, but it’s healthy for them to be in the dark. As tempting as it is to just leave the light on, remember to shut it off when you go to bed. I leave my aquarium lights on for 12 hours a day. If you’re forgetful like me, buy an aquarium light timer you can get at any aquarium store so they can turn on and off on schedule.

10) Dumping Meds in at the First Sign of Trouble

Fish medicine is a last resort. When fish become ill, it is almost always because the water parameters are in bad shape, meaning there is either ammonia or nitrite in the water, or nitrates are at a dangerous level. When you suspect your fish have fungus, bacterial infections, or parasites, first check your water parameters to make sure everything is where it should be.

When you suspect fish are ill, immediately perform a partial water change, no matter what; it’s the safest move you can make when treating your fish. Freshwater aquarium salt can also be added to help with healing, but don’t overdose. Scaleless fish and invertebrates are sensitive to high salinity, so do not add more than one tbsp per 5 gallons to avoid harming them. Also, salt doesn’t evaporate; only partial water changes will remove it, so don’t keep adding salt if you’re not changing out the water. Often water changes and aquarium salt alone treat the early stages of any illness.

The reason you should use meds as a last resort are a) it’s very difficult diagnosing fish, as a lot of different ailments have similar symptoms; the water change and salt treatment is broad and effective, b) some meds can hurt other species of fish (such as melafix and labyrinth fish, or copper ingredients and invertebrates), and c) meds can destroy your beneficial bacteria, which will cause ammonia and nitrites, and that will probably lead to more fish deaths than the illness itself.

For me, the last resort is after 5 days of performing water changes and adding salt appropriately and the symptoms continue to worsen. That or when the fish stops eating, then I’ll purchase medicine, as some illnesses are so advanced that you need something stronger. Make sure you know what’s ailing your fish before giving them medication. Research each medicine you are considering and see what their side effects are: will they hurt invertebrates? Will they kill beneficial bacteria?

If there is just one fish showing signs of illness, take it out of the tank and treat it with medicine in a hospital tank.


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    • giobelkoicenter profile image

      Giovanni Carlo 3 weeks ago from Purok Saranay Tawagan Norte Labangan Zamboang del sur

      These are all true the common mistakes is adding fish to newly water without aging it they thought that clean water is safe they did not know that it lethal to a fish from the gases in it that will penetrate the fish body just like divers disease called bend.

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      Verity 5 weeks ago

      I love this article, thank you. I get advice from the shop and had perfect water levels for my new fish, as well as having pond running for about 5 weeks. All of these rules are highly regarded! I have a question. I keep an eye on Ph levels, and they seem ideal for goldfish as the tap water tests about 7 or 7.2 water seem to keep it low which is great. I have Ph down in case there are any troubles. My question is that I wonder if ammonia levels can be a good indicator of nitrate levels? My ammonia was a little above 0 and when I added fish it was 0, so it seems to be cycling well. I want to become familiar with my tank. For example, if I get mussels I will be looking at water hardness, or calcium levels. But, is it necessary to test nitrite and nitrate, if I have no problems with ammonia? I ask as I can get free tests at the shop anyway, and I don't want to pay to do it from home if it's unnecessary. Nitrite and nitrate were testing at 0 at the shop. I have white clouds and Ph is staying good, water change due in a few days. Thank you!

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      Jennell 2 months ago

      Is it safe to usesoft water in my new aquairium?

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      SteveD0391 5 months ago

      @Roxy this sounds like a bacterial bloom, its when bacterial colonies increase so much that they become visible, this can happen in newly cycled tanks and is part of the nitrogen cycle. The bloom should solve itself once the cycle stabilises and you'll be able to introduce fish to the tank slowly.

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      Roxy 6 months ago

      No fish in the tank, used Cycle a day ago as directed by pet shop and still cloudy. What gives? No drift wood, rinsed everything properly before filling, filter is working, heater is working. Am I ever going to be able to put fish in it?

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      Stephanie G 6 months ago

      i just put 2 small koi and 2 goldfish in a 75 gallon tank

      its been about a week the water is really dirty do i do i 20% water change

      i have been feeding them 2 to 3 times a day is that okay?

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      Allison 8 months ago

      i just move 1 5" goldfish into a new tank. I used the older hang on the back filter in my new tank and took the new filter and put it in the old tank (with no fish). Can I move the "new" hang on the back filter into the new tank. it has been hanging and working in the old tank with new fish for about a week.

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      Juan 9 months ago

      hello, i have a cobra guppy and two platies and two shrimp in a five gallon tank i change the water 25% once every week and i was wondering if thats good for the fish

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      laurira 9 months ago

      Most of your advice is sound, but... I think people put too much stock in the whole pH shock thing. I've had a lot of mistakes along the way and tbh I've moved 3x and had to break down and put my tanks back up. Logistics in moving large tanks beING what they are, Ive always ended up having to replace 50- 75% of the water. I haven't lost a fish yet and this last one, it was 30 degrees out and snowing.

      Healthy fish areally more resilient than people give them credit for. And that brings up temp fluctuations. While I'd never put a fish that is in a bag at 65 degrees into an 8p degree tank, the idea that a slight fluctuation will shock and kill it is naive at best (slight meaning 5 degrees give or take). I've had acclimating fish get accidentally dumped too soon by an eager kiddo and no losses -- unless I bought them from a chain pet store (lessons learned, let me tell you)

      Also, the thing about fish eating til they explode with food is just plain myth. They will stop when they are full and to believe otherwise is just plain silly. You don't over feed them because doing so leads to a filthy tank.

      As far as water changes go, if you have a plant free tank, yes, weekly is mandatory. If you plant your tanks-- which will always lead to happier and healthier fish, the nitrate is almost always next to nothing and, while you might have gross substrate from a cosmetic standpoint, as long as you have nothing catastrophic happen (such as when my 3 year old dumped a large can of food in and no amount of gravel vaccing could save my java moss), the tank becomes very forgiving-- healthy and happy fish even if it over grows a bit and becomes asthetically unpleasant.

      And third, regarding illness... I used to be in the aquarium salt camp/water change camp. I used to jump up and down and scream from the heavens about it. Then I learned that the only thing I need to do to cure ick was to slowly turn my temp up to 88 degrees (over a period of about 2 days-- I keep my tanks coolish at around 68).

      The ONLY store in my area I will ever purchase fish from quarantines all fish for a month before selling a single new stock fish AND medicates any batches with sick fish. Meds aren't bad, IF you know what youre doing.

      The key is knowing that and knowing when the rest of your tank is on key.

      Some might say "we'll you've just gotten lucky." Trust me, I've had enough stupid mistakes over the years to fill a book. It's know in when you're being stupid and when you're not.

    • mariekbloch profile image

      mariekbloch 11 months ago

      pH control does more harm than good. Prime is excellent, as it detoxifies bad chemicals in your tank, declorinates the water, and adds a healthy slime coat to fish. Also, if there are harmful chemicals in your water, like ammonia, Prime is only a temporary fix. It merely makes it tolerable for fish until the nitrogen cycle kicks in.

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      Zach 12 months ago

      What chemicals should I add to my tap water to make it fish safe? I know you need de-cholrinator, but anything else? Like ph control?

    • mariekbloch profile image

      mariekbloch 14 months ago

      I've never had Mollies before, but the tank size does seem too small. 10 gallon would be nice for them, and you could add one or two Mollies. I feed fish once a day with a pinch of flakes, but since you only have two fish, maybe 4 flakes per day? Thanks for replying.

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      Elton 14 months ago

      Hi. I fave two molly fishes about 2 to 3 inches, and I feed them in a 20cm x 10cm small fish tank. May I ask that is it ok for my fishes, and how many food should I feed them everyday, and also how many time should I feed them a day? Thank you.

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