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Would Your Horse Make a Good Therapy Horse?

I've loved horses and animals all my life. I kept up my obsession throughout college and turned it into a great non-profit career.

Horses use their noses to nuzzle.

Horses use their noses to nuzzle.

Therapy Horse Training

About once a week, I get a call from someone who wants to donate their horse to our therapeutic riding program. Sometimes the horse sounds terrific, and I send the owner a packet with a questionnaire and information about us. Most of the time, though, the horse is completely inappropriate for our program, or any therapeutic program, and the owner is confused and upset when I tell them that we can't use their horse.

Even professionals in the horse industry seem to have very little idea about what makes a good therapy horse. In this article, I'll explain what therapeutic riding programs do, what they need from their horses, what they can't accept, and how you can test your own horse for therapeutic potential.

What Do Therapeutic Riding Programs Do?

Whether they're big or small, most therapeutic riding programs share the following characteristics that strongly shape how they run and what they do.

Non-Profit Status

Even when run at the same facility as a for-profit lesson program, most therapeutic riding programs have 501(c)3 classification. This means they're likely to have a specific mission statement, a fixed budget, and limited staff.

  • A program's mission statement defines the purpose of the program and is usually found on their website. Unless it's in the program's mission statement, they are not a horse rescue or rehab facility. They're in business to help people with disabilities, and they need horses that can do that safely and effectively.
  • A fixed budget means the program can't afford to feed a horse they can't use, or one that won't be as useful or versatile as the horses they already have. Even if a horse might be very useful, they'll have to consider carefully if the horse already has long-term, expensive health needs.
  • Limited staff have limited energy, time, and resources to work with a horse that will require extensive training in order to be safe and effective. If the horse hasn't been ridden in forever or has many stable or riding vices, the program probably doesn't have the (wo)manpower to get the horse up to par.

Rigorous Safety Standards

All people who are around horses can potentially get hurt because all horses are potentially dangerous. Therapeutic riding programs need to be extra-careful, because clients come with a wide range of physical, mental, emotional, and developmental disabilities that can make the clients more likely to get hurt, and more seriously affected by injuries, than able-bodied people. Programs must constantly weigh the risks and benefits of all aspects of their operation, including the horses they use.

Unique and Unusual Clients

Building on the previous point, people with disabilities will present sounds, movements, behaviors, and emotions that may be completely new to a horse. While programs will not allow unsafe or violent behavior to continue, it still may happen, and the horse needs to be tolerant of it until the client can be removed.

Educational Objectives

Therapeutic riding programs are lesson programs tailored specifically for people with disabilities. Some clients may be highly involved, require 3 or more hands-on helpers, and never ride faster than a slow, steady walk. Other clients may progress to high levels of western, hunt seat, saddle seat, dressage, driving, or vaulting competition. Each program has specific horse needs that may change over time. Programs need horses that have a wide variety of skills and experiences, to help maximize each client's education.


Because most programs have limited staff, they rely heavily on the time donated by volunteers. Volunteers come with a wide range of horse experience and natural abilities. While good programs carefully screen and train their volunteers, every program needs horses that will accept inept handling and not take advantage of someone who is just learning.

Horse and Rider are Led Outside.

Horse and Rider are Led Outside.

What Makes a Good Therapy Horse?

In the packet I send out to the owners of potential therapy horses is a questionnaire designed to get all the information I need about a horse. Because most programs rely strictly on donated horses, we know we can't pick the cream of the crop. However, minimum requirements must be met for the horse to be safe and useful to the program. Below are the qualities I'm looking for in a therapy horse, in roughly descending order of importance.

  1. Height vs. weight carrying ability: The tallest horse is not always the one who can carry the largest rider. I'd rather have a shorter, stockier draft breed who can carry 200+ pounds than a tall, leggy Thoroughbred type who can't carry as much weight and makes the riders harder to reach.
  2. Temperament: Horses who are naturally kind, calm, and human-oriented are much more likely to give that "little extra something", whether it's standing rock-solid on three legs while a fallen rider is removed from under them, or turning the way they know the rider wants to go, even if the rider can't ask properly.
  3. Training and trainability: A therapy horse must have correct manners on the ground and when ridden. The horse must also have the ability to learn new things and apply them to previous knowledge. Unless the horse has been a therapy horse before, there will be plenty to learn.
  4. Soundness: Therapy horses must be sound in at least the walk and trot in order to benefit the rider. The horse should be comfortable working at least 2 hours a day under the saddle.
  5. Conformation: The conformation of a therapy horse (the way its parts are put together), is only important as it relates to weight carrying ability, soundness, and movement. Blemishes that do not affect these characteristics and have nothing to do with the horse's health should be forgiven. Some of the ugliest horses I've ever seen have made the nicest horses - maybe because they know they don't have looks going for them?
  6. Health: Because of a program's limited budget, horses with chronic, expensive health issues are not ideal, unless the owner agrees to contribute to the cost of keeping the horse. Therapy horses should be at a correct weight for their body type, with strong hooves, shiny coat (when clean!), clear eyes, sweet breath, and normal excrement that indicate overall good health.
  7. Movement: The reason why therapeutic riding is so effective is because of the natural, rhythmic, and repetitive 3-dimensional movement of the horse (this requires its own hub, I'll get on it if people are interested). The quality of movement of a horse is affected by soundness and conformation (which a program can't fix), and by training, saddle fit, and athleticism (which a program can fix). The movement of a horse can be big, little, or average, but it must be clean and correct at the walk and trot, and the canter if the horse will canter in lessons.
  8. Spookability: Okay, I made this word up, but it's a great word, and a very important characteristic. A program needs a horse that hardly ever spooks, not because the horse is never exposed to scary things, but because the horse is brave about most things and smart about the rest. Horses will look at scary things and want to explore or run away from them. But therapy horses must trust their handlers, and learn that new things won't hurt them, and must never, never choose jumping or spinning away as the first option.
  9. Age: Age is just a number, and older doesn't always mean better. Older horses are more likely to be calm and experienced, but they're also more likely to have health and soundness issues, and fewer years of usefulness ahead of them. As with all things, it's a balancing act.

By taking into account how a potential horse rates in all of these areas, a program can decide if a horse is right for them. Just as needs change over time, every program has needs that are unique to their circumstances.

Therapy horses should be calm and content, even while getting lei-ed.

Therapy horses should be calm and content, even while getting lei-ed.

Thank You, But No

These are very hard words for me to say, but I need to reject most offers of horses because they have one or more problems that my therapeutic riding program can't handle. Different programs may have different resources, but for the most part, reasons for rejection include:

  • Aggression towards people, like biting, kicking, and excessively dominant body language
  • Aggression toward horses that keeps the horse from integrating into a herd or concentrating during a lesson
  • Acute lameness that affects movement or temperament
  • Uneven movement from an old injury, like a dropped hip
  • Chronic, serious conditions like navicular, severe laminitis, severe allergies, recurring colic, heaves, or EPM
  • General condition and health problems associated with old age (usually above 25) that may give the horse less than 2 more years of rideability
  • Stallions (intact males)
  • Untrained horses, including racehorses straight off the track
  • Sore or "cold" back
  • Bucking, rearing, running, spinning, and any bad or dangerous habit under saddle
  • Cribbing, pacing, rocking, and any bad or dangerous habit in the barn or pasture
  • Hyper-sensitivity to new objects
  • Unpredictable behavior in new places
  • Dangerous loading or trailering habits (We hardly go anywhere, but other programs might, and we sometimes ship horses in medical emergencies.)
  • Inability to accept unusual riders (We put staff members on new horses and "pretend" to be the types of riders the horses will carry.)
  • Severe eyesight or hearing loss
  • Dangerous behavior for the vet, dentist, or farrier
  • Head-, ear-, or body-shyness
  • Inability to focus on work when out-of-sight of other horses
  • Inability to accept the program's schedule of work, turnout, and stall time
  • Wrong size/height/experience for the program's current needs

Test Your Horse!

If you're considering donating your horse to a therapeutic riding program, the following "games" can prepare your horse for a new career. But even if you and your horse will be together forever, these games can tighten the bond between you, give you unmounted "homework" for rainy days, and provide hours of entertainment for you (and for your horse, while he laughs at your ridiculous new requests).

With all of these games, start slowly and easily, and expect better and better results as time goes on. If your horse gets tense, scared, mad, or bored, just change the subject for a while. The more he enjoys his work, the better he'll do it.

  • Learn a new language: There are dozens of great online resources about horse body language and how to use it (check out the links below). Therapy horses listen to their handlers' body language as part of the illusion that riders are independent and in control of their horses (they have silent, invisible back-up help from staff and volunteers).
  • Word, horse: Voice commands are fun and easy. Start with basics like "Walk on", "Whoa", and "Trot", then get creative. Therapy horses need to respond to voice commands from riders who can't move their bodies to communicate, and "Whoa" is a terrific emergency brake for any situation.
  • Be a statue: Teach your horse to stand square, with equal weight on all 4 feet. Therapy horses need to do this when riders get on and off, and when stirrups and rider position are adjusted. Hint: If your horse is reluctant to lift his feet for hoof-picking, check to see if he's standing square. He can stand on 3 feet, but not 2!
  • Three's not enough of a crowd: Your horse can learn to appreciate being groomed by 3,4, 10 people at a time (depending on the size of the horse!). Therapy horses are often groomed this way when groups from local organizations come to visit.
  • Dodgeball: Okay, few horses actually like this game, but being tolerant of balls and stuffed animals flying over and into them is an important therapy horse skill. Start easy and slow, and remember that once you've de-sensitized one side of the horse, you have to start all over from the beginning on the other side.
  • Poke me: Touch your horse everywhere. Clients can find unusual places to touch a horse in no time flat. This is another de-sensitization game, but you just might find a hidden magic rubbing spot you never knew about, like the sides of the base of the tail... Mmmmm itchies...
  • Help me out: Lean into your horse at odd moments, and teach him the difference between pressure that says "move over" and pressure that says "support me". He will figure it out, and use it when a rider really needs a steady body to lean against.
  • You have WHAT?: Borrow crutches, a walker, a wheelchair, an IV cart, or an empty oxygen tank and teach your horse that these things are cool, and should be accepted unconditionally. The people who use them get enough odd looks during the day; they deserve acceptance at the barn. When your horse gets really good, teach him to walk, halt, and turn while being lead by someone in a wheelchair (with passive back-up on the offside).
  • Be a statue, again: Teach your horse to stand still while you mount and dismount, no matter how long it takes or how poorly you do it. Most therapeutic programs use mounting ramps that put the rider at least 3 feet above the ground, so find a safe place to replicate this new sensation for your horse. Have a horsey friend stand at your horse's head to steady him. He'll most likely have a volunteer holding him when he mounts for a lesson.
  • Sack of potatoes: Ride poorly. Really, really poorly. Schlump in the saddle, lean to one side, tell your horse to do two things at once. He'll think you've lost it, but you'll know if he has the tolerance for therapeutic riders. Teach him to ignore random moments of imbalance, and kiss his nose when you're done. He'll forgive you.
  • Diamonds and pearls: Teach your horse to wear jewelry, like big plastic rings around his ears, hats, and helmets, bells in his mane and tail, a "cape" on his butt, and ribbons trailing off his saddle. We'll do just about anything silly to make a rider smile, and giant sunglasses on a horse look pretty silly, indeed!

It Worked!

I wanted this article to truly help the busy, hard-working people who make therapeutic riding programs flourish, and it did! The Rose of Sharon Equestrian School and Maryland Therapeutic Riding are now using this article to educate their potential horse donors. How cool is that?!

PATH International (Formerly NARHA)

The American Hippotherapy Association (AHA)

One of my all-time favorite books, Horsewatching by Desmond Morris

This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. It is not meant to substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, or formal and individualized advice from a veterinary medical professional. Animals exhibiting signs and symptoms of distress should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.

© 2008 annemaeve


annemaeve (author) from Philly Burbs on April 11, 2016:

Thanks! Horses make great partners for all kinds of things!

Tori Leumas on July 04, 2015:

Great hub! It's so awesome that horses can help out people that are mentally and physically handicapped to have better lives.

annemaeve (author) from Philly Burbs on April 11, 2013:

That's great, I love that this will help you out. Good luck finding great horses!! :)

Tanya on April 09, 2013:

Thank you so much for sharing this information. We will be evaluating horses tomorrow for a new therapeutic riding program and this page has given me lots of tools/ideas to ensure that the horses are safe for our clients.

annemaeve (author) from Philly Burbs on April 08, 2013:

Hi Joan, thank you! I'm flattered that you want to share what I wrote and thrilled that it could help you with your program. :D

Joan on April 04, 2013:

Annemaeve, this was an excellent article. I am writing to request permission to share the info (and to credit you) via handouts to those wishing to send horses to us. Not familiar with "hubs" I also contacted you through your dogbiscuit website. Sorry to be such a technogoof. jmt

annemaeve (author) from Philly Burbs on April 29, 2009:

Do it! Do it! There's no time like the present!!

Jaspal from New Delhi, India on April 29, 2009:

What a nice hub, and so educative. I love horses and have enjoyed riding them for many years.

But it's been a long time and, after reading this hub, I feel like getting back on the saddle. :)

annemaeve (author) from Philly Burbs on January 11, 2009:

I'm so glad you love it, Dana! The frustration you're talking about is exactly why I wrote this hub. How did you get started with EAP? We do mostly TRI and Hippotherapy at our program, but we want to expand to offer EAP. Do you have a mental health professional on staff, or as a volunteer? I think EAP would be a good way to help more riders, as well as give our horses more "work time" during the week.

dana825 from Chicago on January 11, 2009:

i LOVE IT! I work in equine therapy and I wish more people would understand that we can't use just any horse for therapy. I sometimes think I have to meet them and my trainer and I decide whether or not the horse could be used for EAP (equine assisted psychotherapy). It's a broader spectrum of horses than horses for handicapped people but they have to have something about them that a patient can identify with.

Miriam H on October 22, 2008:

Hi again,

I am now a registered user;) Does this help?????

annemaeve (author) from Philly Burbs on October 21, 2008:

Hi Miriam, I'd love to help you with your bibliography, but I'm not sure how to reach you, since you're an unregistered user.

annemaeve (author) from Philly Burbs on October 21, 2008:

Miriam - sounds like a plan! I have a hunch you'll create an absolutely stellar barn and program.

Miriam Halliday on October 21, 2008:

Yes...I have thought about my interistes in the future, and at about 25, I will open a riding stable! I have to go to university first of course:) I have, however, been considering that my stable be partly for Thraputic riding. This would be a big chalange, and would probably start a little later than my riding stable.

Thanks for your kind comments, and it is true, they all say that they could not do it without me;)

Miriam Halliday

annemaeve (author) from Philly Burbs on October 20, 2008:

Miriam, thanks so much for your comment!

It's volunteers like you that make therapeutic programs a reality, and it sounds like your program would be lost without you! It's amazing that you've learned so much and are such a great help at only 12 years old - good for you! Have you thought about where your interest might take you in the future...?

Thank you for including this page for your project, it's a great honor for me. Good luck with the rest of your research, and with all of your work at your therapeutic program!

Miriam Halliday on October 20, 2008:

Wow, your hubs is full of great info:) I work for the VTEA, Valley Therputic Association. I am acctualy a Saterday volunteer, and, also Tack Coordinator. I work the whole day, and enjoy every bit of it-from working with the horses and riders-tacking-grooming-mucking-sweeping-cleaning tack and bits-teaching in's and out's of tacking and grooming to Volunteers......I could go on forever, I have volunteered EVERY Saterday, for Over a year...So I have learned and applied a lot. I have loved, and riden, and cared for horses for all my life, I am 12 now.

However, right now, I am doing reaserch for my school, about, "What Is A Theraputic Horse?" I am including your website in my reaserch:)

Great Job,

Miriam Halliday

annemaeve (author) from Philly Burbs on August 29, 2008:

Thanks for visiting, Veronica! I definitely recommend shipping your kids off to a barn for a few days. They'll come back nice and tired, if a bit smelly...

Veronica Bright from Nebraska on August 29, 2008:

I love horses! I can remember as a child on the school playground pretending to be a horse with my friends.

My kids need therapy...can I borrow one of your horses? lol ;)

annemaeve (author) from Philly Burbs on April 09, 2008:

Funride, thanks for your comments. Seeing the joy and excitement of our riders definitely keeps me coming back to work every day. Good for your friend for being bitten with this bug!

Ricardo Nunes from Portugal on April 09, 2008:

Great hub. I have a friend who owns several horses with that same purpose, horse therapy for children with some kind of problems. It´s great to watch how they interact with horses and to see their happiness in the end.

annemaeve (author) from Philly Burbs on April 03, 2008:

Rhym, thanks for reading, and I'm glad you enjoyed it! It's definitely a lot of work to get the horses ready to do their jobs, but that just makes us love them that much more when they do great things.

Amy, thanks for the support! I really enjoyed just getting all the fluff in my head organized and down in one place. :P

amy jane from Connecticut on April 03, 2008:

I learned so much from your hub, annamaeve. Thank you for the wonderful information! I think this is a very valuable topic and you will find people come form far and wide to read it!

Rhym O'Reison from Crowley, Tx on April 03, 2008:

This is a great article. I have watched programs about using horses for therapy, but never actually knew anyone who did it. This a facinating subject and I can't even imagine how rewarding it must be.

I also never gave any thought to how much thought and training was needed to get a horse to be able to give exactly what each individual needs. This is a huge undertaking and I am thankful that there are special people like you out there who are willing to take it on. It is very inspiring.

annemaeve (author) from Philly Burbs on April 01, 2008:

Thanks, Sally! I never even thought about playing these games with a dog. What a great idea!

You rock too!

Sherri from Southeastern Pennsylvania on April 01, 2008:

Annemaeve, what a wonderful hub full of fascinating and useful information.

Thank you so much for giving me an even better picture of what you do, how you do it, and how much others benefit.

I liked the game list a lot. I imagine that many of these activities would be of value for dogs and their people, especially if you are thinking that your dog might be a candidate for therapy-dog training. Diamonds and pearls would be my fav!

You rock!