Horse Training: When Is Discipline Abuse?
Discipline and Abuse
These days, animal abuse has become an important social issue. Opinions on the matter range from those who believe animals are merely property and they can do whatever they like to them to the extreme views held by some members of PETA.
I personally have been attacked for stating that the use of a whip is acceptable under certain circumstances...and for saying I don't carry one all of the time. So, some people draw the line in different places.
However, there may well be some good rules of thumb to follow on the matter.
To understand where the line should be, one has to understand horses. I had far too many dealings with a woman who believed (and convinced others) that horses had such thick skins they barely felt it when you beat them. She never convinced me, but she did teach many children to beat horses.
Horses are, in fact, very sensitive to physical contact of all kinds. Indeed, much of the communication between rider and horse occurs using the seat and legs. Horses respond quickly to physical discipline and physical reward. (If you really want to make your horse happy, try gently scratching the base of the mane about halfway down the neck—they love that.)
Additionally, horses have a surprisingly good memory. Studies have proven that horses remember people who treat them well and people who treat them badly. I have personally witnessed a horse definitely showing signs that he remembered that 'So-and-so always has treats'...when the person concerned hadn't been there for several months. Because of this, horses are almost as vulnerable to trauma as humans are.
For example, somebody I know had a multi-stakes-winning Standardbred gelding who turned into a beautiful hunter. He had had a long and highly successful career (he was only gelded for medical reasons), but then had a bad wreck on the track that resulted in the sulky landing on top of him. That horse never went in harness again; he was simply unwilling to be put into any kind of a carriage. Can you blame him?
Horses also do not grasp change easily. A horse who is moved to a different stall may continue to try to go to the old one for months.
Therefore, a horse who has been abused is likely to retain psychological scars for an extensive period of time.
The second key aspect of equine psychology is that horses do not consider long term consequences. Horses are aware only of immediate consequences. Corrections, therefore, need to be applied immediately and quickly. If you wait until you get back to the barn, your horse will have forgotten what he did wrong. Any form of discipline that relies on the horse understanding non-immediate consequences is ineffective and could be considered abuse.
The Vital Importance of Release in Horse Training
From 'immediate consequences' comes a vital and central aspect of horse training.
When we ask a horse to do something, we use, for the most part, physical contact either directly through the seat and legs or indirectly through the rein. The voice is also important (carriage drivers often rely very heavily on the voice as the only contact they have with the animals is through the rein).
As an example, if a rider wants a horse to trot, she will close her legs onto the horse's sides and shift her seat slightly forward. As soon as the horse trots, however, she relaxes her legs again. She may keep the inside leg on the horse a little because that helps the horse's balance, but the second the horse trots, the aids are stopped. This is release.
Release, quite simply, is that when the horse does what you want, you stop hassling him about it. Horses that are not given release will generally learn to ignore the cues. This is called desensitization, and is common in horses ridden by beginners. This tends to lead to an escalation of ever louder cues and can end up with the whip coming out.
When applying discipline, remember to release. Too often you'll see a rider—sometimes an advanced competition rider—hit a horse for refusing and then just keep hitting it, no matter what it does. (Half the time the refusal was their fault anyway.)
Not only does hitting a horse 8 or 10 times carry with it the risk of injuring the animal physically or mentally, but it completely violates the principle of release. As soon as the horse does what you ask, the pressure needs to ease. A horse that is being beaten is not given a chance to do what the rider wants, and is just being harassed and pressured.
Sometimes, giving a horse a tap with the whip is warranted, but remember that it is pressure and has to be followed by release. For example, if a horse will not go forward, the technique should be squeeze, tap, then squeeze again. This gives the horse a fair chance to do what you want when you ask nicely.
Did the Horse Actually Do Anything Wrong?
One very important matter for the line is that a horse should only be disciplined if it actually did something wrong.
Coming back to the same individual who gave the 'horses have thick skins' line, this person also believed that if a horse was scared, the best way to resolve it was to make the horse even more scared of you.
Hitting a horse that is scared, anxious, or in pain is always abuse. A horseman learns to determine what is going on. For example, if a horse has always cantered off before and suddenly starts bucking, it is probably not being naughty. More likely something is bothering it.
One common problem that always needs to be considered is that when horses are trained their backs actually change shape. A green horse who has just been backed has little muscle on what is called the 'top line'. A fit horse can have quite a lot. Many times, an inexperienced trainer will discover that their green horse suddenly starts playing up about two months into work. They may think, or even be told, that the horse is going through a 'testing' phase—when often the inevitable physical changes have resulted in a saddle that fit perfectly when the horse was backed not fitting any more. Many professional trainers use saddles with adjustable trees for just this reason.
A horse should not be beaten if it is scared, but rather be worked with to help it get over its fear. I have seen horses react with fear to the strangest things, such as walking into a box stall, or a horse that would jump anything as long as it didn't have a ditch under it. Such apparently irrational fears are often the result of something in the animal's past. The horse that won't go into a box stall may have been, at some point, trapped in one. The horse that spooks at ditches may have been stuck under a fence with a ditch under it. I have also encountered genuine phobias in equines, but most of the time there's some triggering incident. Horses that are scared of particular things can be desensitized with time and patience. In many cases, though, the horse that is beaten for being scared is no longer afraid of whatever it was afraid of, but of its handler. Such animals need retraining to teach them to trust humans again.
Horses should also not be beaten if they are reacting the way they are because of pain and ill-fitting tack. Sudden misbehavior by a horse that is normally an angel is 90% of the time caused by physical discomfort of some kind. Of course, knowing your horse and how they normally behave is key.
Is There A Better Way?
Also, consider whether there is a better way to get your point across to the animal.
For example, in the case of chronic misbehavior or a horse that is throwing tantrums (I've seen both green horses and older horses that have not been well trained throw actual tantrums), it is often much more effective to work the horse until the misbehavior ceases and then immediately end the schooling session.
If a horse is refusing to do a specific maneuver and pain and discomfort have been eliminated, then it is much more effective to school that maneuver last and end the session as soon as it has been done correctly, until the horse does it right off.
Ending the schooling session once the horse has done what you want is, of course, the ultimate 'release'.
For problems on the ground, the voice and body language tend to be more effective than the whip, although I have used a lunge whip as a barrier to convince a horse of the concept of 'personal space'.
Finally, if the misbehavior is running away or 'taking off', then the use of any kind of physical discipline tends to be counter-productive. Some horses run away because of discomfort - running away can be a symptom of over-bitting. If the horse is doing it to be a brat, then I have found only one effective solution. That solution is to keep the horse running. When it tries to stop, keep it running. Don't let it stop until you say. It usually only takes two or three applications of that for the horse to realize that running off with you isn't much fun. Hitting a horse that runs off will often be used by it as an excuse to run off again.
In summary, hitting a horse can be discipline or abuse. Some people believe that any use of the whip is abuse. However, the good rules of thumb follow:
- Discipline must take place immediately after the misbehavior. Note that tying a horse up and leaving it to think about what it did does not work on horses.
- A horse should never be disciplined for being afraid or spooking.
- A horse should not be disciplined if there is a reasonable suspicion that it may be in pain or discomfort.
- Any discipline should be followed by immediate release, assuming the misbehavior has indeed stopped. It is almost never necessary to hit a horse more than once.
- For some misbehaviors, using the whip is not the most effective method of discipline.