Are Dog Shock Collars Harmful? The Dangers of E-Collar Training

Updated on July 11, 2019
Layne Holmes profile image

Layne has worked in shelter medicine for over six years and likes to share her advice with fellow animal guardians.

Are electronic collars necessary?
Are electronic collars necessary? | Source

Are Shock Collars Inhumane?

Yes, they are. Here's an image of an injury from a misused collar. If you would not want to wear a collar for correcting your bad behaviors, then you can certainly rationalize that electronic collars are inhumane. If you are having that much trouble training your dog you either:

  1. Have not worked with the right trainer or employed the correct techniques
  2. Are not suited to care for the complexities of your dog
  3. Have your dog in the wrong environment
  4. Need a second opinion
  5. Should rehome your dog to an experienced owner

Do Shock Collars Hurt a Dog?

Yes. These collars are considered an aversive training technique and they were widely used in the 1960s on hunting dogs. While some view training collars as a deterrent, they can actually increase behaviors like food aggression or excessive barking.

Electronic collars are a form of punishment, and not a gentle one. Approved training collars can malfunction, and any claims that such collars will not harm the dog are unreliable. There have been plenty of cases of dogs receiving electrical burns through their fur. Scarier yet, you won't be aware of these electrical burns until the injury finally appears–the fur does a good job of masking it!

How Do They Work?

Most collars give a preemptive "beep" before firing. This is often used in conjunction with verbal commands, or the beep will sound as the dog is approaching the underground electric fence wire. Many of these collars:

  • have adjustable intensity
  • work whether the owner is home or not
  • range from 30 dollars to over 350
  • work between 30 too 400 yards

Electronic collars are often set to "mildly uncomfortable" levels and are often said to deliver "static shock" but in reality, these collars deliver alternating current upon contact with skin. Humidity and coat density affects how seriously the dog feels the shock. This means that the sensation being felt by an individual dog cannot be accurately reflected in studies or product analyses. Dogs have different skin, coat types, and pain tolerances, and live in different climates.

“To use shock as an effective dog training method you will need: A thorough understanding of canine behavior. A thorough understanding of learning theory. Impeccable timing. And if you have those three things, you don’t need a shock collar.“

— Dr. Ian Dunbar, DVM

Reports of Severe Burns and Injuries Caused by Shock Collars

Dating as far back as 1980, the US Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) put a halt to the certain manufacturing of a bark collar. Such data reports:

"Complaints received, which were later corroborated by our own testing, included severe burns in the collar area and possible personality adjustment injuries to the dogs. The shocking mechanism was found to be activated not only by barking but by vehicle horns, slamming doors or any other loud noise."

Currently, electronic collars are not regulated and there are no set standards for evaluation. Patenting, too, varies between manufacturers.

Do Shock Collars Work?

Certified trainers of contemporary times will tell you that not only are electronic collars unnecessary, they are harmful and have negative impacts on your dog's behavior and temperament. Some trainers argue for "fair use" meaning, not abusing the use of electronic collar, but using it only in appropriate circumstances—this includes regular schedules for training and established desired outcomes. Better behavior modification systems have been developed.

To use shock collars correctly, however, takes great understanding about effectiveness and requires minimal delivery. Very few people are able to achieve this desired effect, and it is certainly not for the average dog owner.

Bans in Various Countries

  • Scotland
  • Denmark
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Austria
  • Switzerland
  • Slovenia
  • Germany
  • Australia (some territory)
  • New South Wales
  • Southern Australia

Shock collars are used to modify behavior and for containment.
Shock collars are used to modify behavior and for containment. | Source


Even the best training collars can malfunction and cause severe electrical burns. Such injuries can be physical and psychologically damaging.

What Are the Best Dog Shock Collars?

This is a trick question. The word "best" and "shock collars" should not be associated with each other. Maybe you would want to search "safest," "most reliable," "least dangerous," but in reality, if you are resorting to a shock collar for use on your dog, you might need to do some reevaluating. These collars are often referred to as:

  • shock collars
  • e-collars
  • remote training collars
  • training collars
  • electric anti-bark collars
  • electronic collars
  • bark collars

What Are They Used For?

I do want to make a distinction here—for people who have large property, open land, and livestock, you may need methods for deterring your dog from running off, getting trampled, disappearing off your property, or chasing wildlife. But unfortunately, electronic fences can create barrier aggression. I am inexperienced with alternatives in that area having grown up in suburbia, but I have provided some alternatives below. If you have knowledge on how to contain a dog on big property humanely, please share!

Today, shock collars are used for:

  • obedience training
  • behavior modification
  • containment
  • service dog training

Video: Humans Test a Dog Shock Collar

Safety Tips and Precautions for Shock Collars

If you are currently using an electric collar on your dog, please consult a professional behaviorist for alternatives and abide by these safety tips:

  • Do not leave the collar on for long durations
  • Reposition the collar frequently (every hour or so)
  • Make sure the collars is fitted appropriately and not causing excessive pressure
  • Leads should not be used with these collars
  • Practice good hygiene over the neck area and prongs of the device
  • Check for sores and rashes frequently; if found, stop use immediately and take your dog to a veterinarian for treatment

When considering whether or not shock collar use is worth it, ask yourself, would you want to be corrected with a shock collar? No. There has to be a better solution. If you've found a better solution, please share in the comments below!

Video: An Owner With a Deeper Understanding of Use

Alternatives to Electric Shock Collars

  • Ultrasonic bark controllers: A humane way to control your dog's undesirable behavior. Most products have a 50 foot spread. It is unobtrusive and not physically punishing.
  • Citrus spray collar (citronella, orange): This is a more human alternative for barking dogs or dogs exhibiting bad behavior. We actually used one of these on our dog (20 years ago!) because she was quite territorial and defensive in the morning (and loud). It's not a solution but it is a great alternative. It's the lesser evil, if you will.
  • Dog whistle: Some breeds just simply need training. Some dogs have excellent recall and can be trained with a whistle—much like those that are used with herding breeds and for herding commands. They are cheap and fairly effective. Just be sure to read up on training methods.
  • Adaptil: Anxious dogs may benefit from Adaptil—this is a mothering canine pheromone that is excreted during the nursing days, so it is especially soothing for anxious dogs.
  • A good trainer: A good trainer goes a long way. Positive reinforcement is the best method for coaching dogs out of undesirable behaviors. If you haven't worked with a trainer to address the ongoing issues, this is where you need to start.
  • Fencing: Maybe it's time to bite the bullet and just go ahead and put fencing on your property.

Do alternatives work?
Do alternatives work? | Source


  • wikipedia

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

Questions & Answers

    © 2019 Layne Holmes

    All opinions are welcome.

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      • Layne Holmes profile imageAUTHOR

        Layne Holmes 

        5 days ago from Bend, Oregon

        Hi Teckelhut—your field experience amazes me. I am scared to hear that you helped rehabilitate many dogs that had been ruined by shock collars. I can see them developing an absolute fear of something going over their heads. I am super glad to hear that you appreciate this article. I hope it can reach more people.

      • profile image


        8 days ago

        I am so glad to see this article. Up until I became disabled 3 years ago I was a professional dog trainer and dog behavior consultant. I have gotten in many a dog to retrain that were ruined by a shock collar. And the majority that I got in had an over the top fear of collars.

      • Layne Holmes profile imageAUTHOR

        Layne Holmes 

        6 months ago from Bend, Oregon

        Thanks so much Isabella for your feedback. I think it's wise to be wary and discouraging of their use. We have such great trainers and training resources available these days that we can make smarter choices.

      • Isabellared profile image


        6 months ago from Canada

        Its nice to see someone spreading information about collars and info for owners etc. I've always been fairly wary of shock collars and I think- as you've mentioned in the article that there are many other ways to deal with such cases.

      • Layne Holmes profile imageAUTHOR

        Layne Holmes 

        6 months ago from Bend, Oregon

        That's good to hear. I've never been fond of these collars. I know a dog that has to wear one because his neighbor complained of his barking—the barking results from boredom and being left alone in a suburban area. I am very supportive of trainers and their expertise . . . I'm curious to hear from people who keep hunting dogs or own large property with wildlife or livestock. Alternative ideas are much appreciated!

      • Eurofile profile image

        Liz Westwood 

        6 months ago from UK

        I have never seen one in use, but I have always been wary of them. My friend had a spray bottle filled with water. Whenever one of her rescue dogs persistently misbehaved a quick spray of water got the message across in a harmless way.


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