Do Dogs Go to Heaven? A Christian Perspective

Updated on August 17, 2019
agilitymach profile image

Kristin is a dog agility instructor and competitor with 20 years in the sport.

A Christian perspective on where pets go when they die
A Christian perspective on where pets go when they die | Source

Is My Pet in Heaven?

I petted the white, silky fur of my American Eskimo for the last time. She lay peacefully—her body still warm, although her heart had quit beating minutes earlier. The vet had listened for a heartbeat with his stethoscope but had found silence. The medicine he had injected had done its job, and my Laika was no longer in pain.

Her 15-year-old body was here with me, but where was she? Where was the essence of Laika?

Was she in heaven? Do dogs and other pets go to heaven? Is there really a "Rainbow Bridge"? Or do animals just cease to exist?

The author's American Eskimo, Laika.
The author's American Eskimo, Laika. | Source

Dogs in Heaven? The Experts Speak

These questions have been asked by animal lovers for centuries, and even some heavy hitting theologians have weighed in on the issue. According to many of them, yes, animals probably DO go to heaven.

C.S. Lewis, a well-known apologist for the Christian faith in the 1900s and author of the famous books The Chronicles of Narnia, is known for his assertion that animals would get to heaven through the relationship of their owners with God. Therefore, a Christian's pets would be found in the new heaven because of their owner's faith.

"The theory I am suggesting... makes God the centre of the universe and man the subordinate centre of terrestrial nature: the beasts are not co-ordinate with man, but subordinate to him, and their destiny is through and through related to his. And the derivative immortality suggested for them is not a mere amende or compensation: It is part and parcel of the new heaven and new earth, organically related to the whole suffering process of the world's fall and redemption." (C.S. Lewis, The Problem of Pain, Chapter 9, 1940, p 145).

"I think God will have prepared everything for our perfect happiness. If it takes my dog being there (in Heaven), I believe he'll be there."

— Rev. Billy Graham, often called "America's Pastor"

Martin Luther, the well-known reformationist of the 16th century and the unwitting founder of the Lutheran denomination within Christendom, believed dogs go to heaven. Referring to his beloved dog Tolpel, he once said about dogs and other animals being in Heaven:

"Certainly there will be, for Peter calls that day the time of the restitution of all things. Then, as clearly said elsewhere, he will create new Tolpels with skin of gold and hair of pearls. There and then God will be all in all. No animal will eat any other. Snakes and toads and other beasts which are poisonous on account of original sin will then be not only innocuous but even pleasing and nice to play with. Why is it that we cannot believe all things will happen as the Bible says, even in this article of resurrection? Original sin is at fault." (From Preserved Smith, "The Life and Letters of Martin Luther" London: John Murray, 1911, p. 362.)

But it's understood that even brilliant minds such as Lewis, Graham, and Luther can be wrong, so what is the reasoning behind their belief that animals go to heaven?

If you look at the quotes above, you see a common theme. The Bible is specific that God will create a new heaven and a new earth at the end of our current earth. This newness will be a "restitution of all things," says Luther. With the understanding that God plans on restoring creation, these biblical scholars agree that within that restoration will be the restoration of our beloved pets.

Restoration Is the Thing: Bible Verses Discussing Restoration of Creation

The Bible mentions this restoration of Creation all throughout.

  • Acts 3:19-21 "Repent then, and turn, to have your sins wiped out that a time may come when the Lord refreshes you and sends Jesus, Whom He appointed to be your Savior and Whom heaven had to receive until the time when everything will be restored, as God said long ago by His holy prophets." (ATT translation)
  • Revelation 21:1 "Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth has passed away, and there was no longer any sea." (NIV)
  • 2 Peter 3:10-13 "But the day of the Lord will come like a theif, in which the heavens will pass away with a roar and the elements will be destroyed with intense heat, and the earth and its works will be burned up. Since all these things are going to be destroyed in this way, what sort of people ought you to be in holy conduct and godliness, looking for and hastening the coming of the day of God, on account of which the heavens will be destroyed by burning, and the elements will melt in intense heat! But according to His promise, we are looking forward to a new heaven and a new earth in which righteousness dwells."

Laika with her first blue ribbon earned in obedience competition.
Laika with her first blue ribbon earned in obedience competition. | Source
Cats, hamsters, rabbits, guinea pigs and other pets are all part of God's creation that will be restored in heaven.
Cats, hamsters, rabbits, guinea pigs and other pets are all part of God's creation that will be restored in heaven. | Source

These are only a very few of the scriptures that describe the restoration of creation at the end of this world. Let's take a close look at Romans 8:18-22, which describes creation groaning for redemption.

"I consider that our present sufferings are not worth comparing with the glory that will be revealed in us. For the creation waits in eager expectation for the children of God to be revealed. For the creation was subjected to frustration, not by its own choice, but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought into the freedom and glory of the children of God.

We know that the whole creation has been groaning as in the pains of childbirth right up to the present time." (NIV)

We can see here in Romans 8 that even creation has been in bondage and decay because of human sin and is groaning for liberation that the final restoration will give. This passage shows that God is planning on restoring His creation, and animals are a part of that creation.

Hence, Lewis, Graham, and Luther all believed that God would bring back to Himself in the restoration His creation, and our pets are part of that restoration.

Dr. Peter M. Kurowski said in his "Animals in Heaven, Pet's in Paradise" Bible study:

"The rest of the world, however, stands on tiptoes stretching its collective being eagerly looking forward to the new Eden. Pets in paradise? Sure sounds like it, if we pay careful attention to God's subtle, but clear word. All creation, the creation, this created world, except for demons and unbelivers, is lining up for His love, and His Lordship, plus His promise through St. Paul should give us highest of hope."

So do dogs, cats, horses, and other pets go to Heaven? While the Bible doesn't come straight out and say "yes," it does imply through its discussion of the redemption of God's creation that our pets will greet us in the new heaven and new earth.

As I watched the vet wrap Laika's now still body in her blanket and carry her out the door, I was heart broken. The pain of the loss was so strong, it was physical. Yet as I closed the door behind him, tears streaming down my face, I knew that Laika was free—that she was young again, running in heaven.

Will our reunion with our pets be exactly like the famous poem, "The Rainbow Bridge"? While the poem does mention restoration, it is doubtful a place exactly like "The Rainbow Bridge" exists, but knowing the loyalty and love of dogs, it is not hard to imagine a greeting similar to the poem.

Do you believe pets go to heaven?

See results

Laika: That Dog Still Rocks

"The Rainbow Bridge"

Just this side of heaven is a place called Rainbow Bridge.

When an animal dies that has been especially close to someone here, that pet goes to Rainbow Bridge. There are meadows and hills for all of our special friends so they can run and play together. There is plenty of food, water and sunshine, and our friends are warm and comfortable.

All the animals who had been ill and old are restored to health and vigor; those who were hurt or maimed are made whole and strong again, just as we remember them in our dreams of days and times gone by. The animals are happy and content, except for one small thing; they each miss someone very special to them, who had to be left behind.

They all run and play together, but the day comes when one suddenly stops and looks into the distance.

His bright eyes are intent; His eager body quivers. Suddenly he begins to run from the group, flying over the green grass, his legs carrying him faster and faster.

You have been spotted, and when you and your special friend finally meet, you cling together in joyous reunion, never to be parted again. The happy kisses rain upon your face; your hands again caress the beloved head, and you look once more into the trusting eyes of your pet, so long gone from your life but never absent from your heart.

Then you cross Rainbow Bridge together....

-Author Unknown

The author's dogs, including the recently deceased American Eskimo, Laika.
The author's dogs, including the recently deceased American Eskimo, Laika. | Source

Questions & Answers

  • I put my little Buster to sleep because he couldn’t breath well because of heart problems. Do you think Buster will hate me for putting him to sleep, and he won’t look for me at the Rainbow Bridge?

    You saved Buster from suffering. You kept him from physical and mental anguish. It was your final, and hardest, act of love for him. Will he look for you at the Rainbow Bridge? You bet. And he'll thank you, in his own way, for your final act of courage on his behalf.

    It hurts, I know. I had to put my dog Jericho to sleep last December. For a few days, I felt guilty, but I kept reminding myself that he was suffering and wasn't going to get better. Only worse. Much worse.

    You did not hurt Buster. His heart was just not working anymore.

    Buster loved you. He will greet you with all that love someday.


Submit a Comment
  • profile image

    Deanna Clark 

    2 months ago

    My daughter, Theresa, loved little animals. She lived to be 9 and we have had many times heard her laugh or give advice. She came to a friend who insisted there were no animals or plants in Heaven, Our friend said Theresa was wearing a white dress with a hair ribbon and her beloved kitten on her shoulder. Theresa laughed and scolded here, "See, Wendy, I TOLD you so!!"

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    7 months ago

    I am so sorry to read about Zazi. She was very loved. Grieving hurts physically and emotionally. I recently lost the white sheltie with the tan head pictured with the other dogs on the sofa photograph. It's such a hard road to walk, this grief. I will pray you find peace and healing. Zazi would want you to be happy.

  • profile image


    7 months ago

    After 13 years of sweet companion ship i lost my bichon of cancer in January 12, 2019. I can't stop crying. Everything reminds me of her. My home is empty now that sge is gone.

    I always argued that if Zazi, my dog, will not be in heaven then I will not like to go there. I love her this much and more. Your article broughy hope to my heart. I sure I shall meet her and we shall never part again.

    Thank you for posting this artcle.

  • profile image


    13 months ago

    Hello, I know It’s been a while since who have wrote this but i’d like to let you know that a few days ago my Sheltie passed away and every night I think about were has her soul gone. I love her with all my heart and even though as people on this world don’t fully know if a pet of anyones goes to heaven I think everyone should know that even if they don’t you should always remember the greatest times you’ve had with them and create new ones with with every pet you get. Right now things that are helping me get threw this my American Eskimo and my family and that’s a memory I will keep

  • profile image


    19 months ago

    YES 100 % all dogs and cats animals go to Heaven,

  • profile image

    Jerry Schooler 

    23 months ago

    Yet another glorious reason to reach for Heaven and all that awaits us there . My hope is that not only our precious pets who we miss on earth so desperately,

    But all those animals who had no one to love or love them. Who lived in pain and suffering with no family, no gentle stroking, no release from pain, suffering and abject despair. Animals are the only creatures on earth who are totally free of sin. In my mind that makes them sacred . Sacred to us as humans and sacred to , I believe , their Creator. I am trusting that God 'a love for his creation extends beyond Humankind and envelops every work of his hand and mind!

    I believe in a blessed and eternal reunion with my departed (to heaven) animals whom I love so much as they do me.

    They taught me how to love! That's how important they have been to me .

    Looking ahead to that matchless day of joy!

  • profile image

    neil segars jr 

    2 years ago

    the way we love our pets is only a fraction of God's love for us.

    my opinion is yes our animals will be with us, God wants us happy and loves us. He knows the way we feel about our animals. God also gets the glory because the animals will be there who will we thank God of course the glory will be His.

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    2 years ago

    Thank you! It is something I hear my fellow dog competitors mention often. As one saying goes, "When I die, I want to go where my dog went." I am comforted to know such great minds as the ones mentioned in the article believed that dogs go to heaven. It will be a great reunion there.

  • greenmind profile image

    GreenMind Guides 

    2 years ago from USA

    Very interesting hub! I never really thought of this before!

  • profile image

    shawn mcavoy 

    2 years ago

    When my little girl Bichon frise passed we blessed her with holy water and said a passage praising God for all His creations. In the passage we said that God was the creator of all good things that brighten up the sky. We looked up at the sky and saw Anabelle in the clouds. Google" Anabelle in the clouds" for the full story.

  • profile image

    Luci Shaw 

    3 years ago

    I had this conversation at lunch with Dallas Willard and Madeleine L'Engle. Willard said that he believed that everything that added to our joy and love on earth would be part of heaven.

  • ShariBerry profile image

    Sharon Berry 

    4 years ago from Michigan

    The Book "Heaven" by Randy Alcorn tells us that our animals will be in heaven. I believe it and look forward to seeing many of my beloved dogs.

  • lhale profile image


    5 years ago from Georgia

    What a sweet comment! Thank you!

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    5 years ago

    Thank you so much for the kind words. I'm so sorry about losing your precious Maltese. My mom's favorite dog ever was a Maltese, and mom still misses her. They are wonderful little dogs. I'm so glad you'll be reunited in the "new heaven!!" You both were blessed to have had each other.

  • lhale profile image


    5 years ago from Georgia

    My beloved 14 year old Maltese died about 6 weeks ago, and I have really been grieving. Although I cried reading your hub, it was very encouraging and uplifting. I certainly believe in the Roman 8 statement that all creation will be restored, and I believe that includes the animals. (My Pastor does too, by the way!) I just needed to see it all stated so clearly, as your hub did, to help me at that time. Thank you for that!

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    6 years ago

    Thank you for dropping by epbooks. I'm counting on my dogs being in heaven. It would be boring there without dogs!!! :D

  • epbooks profile image

    Elizabeth Parker 

    6 years ago from Las Vegas, NV

    Enjoyed this hub. Since I've lost many of my dogs throughout my life, I'd like to think that they go to heaven. :) I'd love to see them again one day! Thanks for writing this. Definitely makes one think about the topic!

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    6 years ago

    I'm so glad my hub made you happy. :) We will have such happy reunions with our furred family when we get to heaven!!! Thanks for dropping by.

  • nArchuleta profile image

    Nadia Archuleta 

    6 years ago from Denver, Colorado

    You made me cry, but in a good way. I know I'll see my beloved pets who have gone before me. I also agree 100% with Lucky Cats. I pray those poor animals who never knew love get to know it in heaven. Thanks for the Hub -- I'm going to go look at kitten pictures to cheer myself back up!

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    6 years ago

    Thanks for dropping by Ron. :)

  • RonElFran profile image

    Ronald E Franklin 

    6 years ago from Mechanicsburg, PA

    This is one of the imponderables of the Christian faith. There is a biblical case to be made against animals in heaven, but since Scripture doesn't definitively address the issue, there is no particular joy or necessity in making it. I like Billy Graham's reasoning: if having a beloved pet with us in heaven will contribute to our happiness, it will be there. Thanks for your hub.

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    6 years ago

    You're welcome!!! Friskie will be very excited to see you. :) Thanks for dropping by.

  • Efficient Admin profile image

    Michelle Dee 

    6 years ago from Charlotte, NC

    agilitymatch, thank you for sharing this hub. I'm sorry you lost Laika but glad you were blessed with 15 years with her. The other dogs are so precious - cute and beautiful at the same time! The Rainbow Bridge brings slight tears to my eyes thinking of seeing my dog Friskie again.

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    6 years ago


    There are many more theologians, pastors and apologists who also believe dogs will be in Heaven. It's comforting to know I'm in good company!!! :) Thanks for dropping by.

  • hyunchang profile image


    6 years ago

    What an insightful hub! I had no idea people like C.S. Lewis, Martin Luther, and Billy Graham spoke about this issue. Thank you for sharing.


  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    6 years ago

    Thank you Rosie. I want to believe it too. :) I appreciate your vote!!

  • Rosie2010 profile image

    Rosie Rose 

    6 years ago from Toronto, Canada

    Hiya agilitymach, a very interesting and informative hub. I want to believe that Rainbow Bridge exists, where our beloved pets who passed are waiting for us. Voted up and definitely very informative. Cheers!

    I wish you a happy, healthy and prosperous new year.


  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    7 years ago

    Thank you alexadry! I believe you will see them again, and as great an owner as you have been, it will be a joyous reunion. :)

  • alexadry profile image

    Adrienne Janet Farricelli 

    7 years ago

    I really hope dogs go to doggy heaven, because I really plan on meeting them once again, voted up and awesome!

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    7 years ago

    Afriquet, thanks so much for dropping by!!! I appreciate your reading it. :)

  • afriqnet profile image

    Joe Njenga 

    7 years ago from Nairobi Kenya

    Thanks for sharing your thoughts about dogs and spirituality. I am not sure about if dogs will go to heaven but certainly Yes or No . It's a fifty fifty thing.

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    7 years ago

    Thanks xstatic!!! I appreciate the vote. :D

  • xstatic profile image

    Jim Higgins 

    7 years ago from Eugene, Oregon

    Interesting ideas and way of looking at the subject. Up!

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    7 years ago

    Thank you Patty!!! Once again, I appreciate you dropping by, and I appreciate the vote up. :)

  • Patty Kenyon profile image

    Patty Kenyon 

    7 years ago from Ledyard, Connecticut

    Very Interesting!!! I love reading theology regardless of religion!! This is definitely food for thought and well researched!!! I loved the pictures as well!!!

    Voted Up and Interesting!!!

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    7 years ago

    Thank Dr. Mark!! I love Christian theology, so I have given this some thought. I appreciate you sharing it!! The sofa photo is one of my absolute favorites. :)

  • DrMark1961 profile image

    Dr Mark 

    7 years ago from The Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil

    Great article, it is obvious that you have thought about this subject a lot. I shared this on my twitter feed, voted up and interesting.

    It was nice to see a picture of your Shelties resting on the couch, not just competing! They still look very attentative.

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    7 years ago

    Oh, I'm not offended at all. :) I'm glad, too, that you find happiness in your pets and love them as you do. You all are blessed to have each other. :) Thanks for dropping by!!!

  • Lucky Cats profile image


    7 years ago from The beautiful Napa Valley, California

    Hi there agilitymach...yours is an excellent voice and you did a very good job of explaining your position...I did understand you and I agree attempt was to add my voice to yours in an effort to underscore your words... the way I see it; we are definitely on the same page....I am sorry if it was is obvious through your picture, your description of the last moments you and Laika shared and your last paragraph that you, of course, believe that we will meet our beloved animals again and that God's love extends to all beautiful, living beings. My mea culpa was that I hoped I hadn't stepped into your hub too much as I tried to offer an argument against some of the premises and figures you quoted. (I can get carried away on this subject as animals and our understanding of and appreciation for; are so important to me) I appreciate your writing and your comment, too. Thank you so much. It's good to know you care as you do and believe as you do...makes me happy.

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    7 years ago

    Thank you!! That's one of my favorite pictures too. They were so pleased with themselves and apparently had a really good time with that roll of paper towels!! Very much worth the price of the paper towels and the clean up. :)

  • agilitymach profile imageAUTHOR

    Kristin Kaldahl 

    7 years ago

    Lucky Cats, you did not offend at all. I was not saying I believed what CS Lewis states - that an animals existence in heave is determined by its owners faith. I was only saying what CS Lewis believes.

    I personally believe that ALL creation - and I do mean all - will be bound back to God in the new Heaven and new Earth. That's my belief.

    However I wanted to cover different theological perspectives from those who believe animals will be in heaven in my hub. I didn't want it to be just my opinion, as this isn't exactly and op ed piece. :)

  • Lucky Cats profile image


    7 years ago from The beautiful Napa Valley, California

    hi Agilitymatch. You've posed an age old and very important question; one which all of us who love our companion animals, wonder about. I have no doubt that there will be a reunion after the physical body ends. How could there not be? Life as it exists in animals is not that much different than our own...with one exception: animals truly are innocent; they live according to natural dictates and they do not act out of malice. I have questions regarding whether the importance of life here on earth, no matter what form it takes; is dependent upon a human connection in order to be "awarded" life after death. I think (and hope) that the miracle that is embodied in life; independent, unique and individual, is worthy of more than the end being limited to physical life on earth.

    My relationship to my rescued aniamals; primarily cats but I do have dogs as well, shows me that they are very familiar, very sensitive, intuitive and do relate to us. Cats' emotional center in the brain is the most similar to humans of all animals...they are entirely intricate and intelligent, communicative animals.

    I mourn for those who suffer and who die alone; not ever knowing love or a kind, gentle touch. I do not believe that the homeless, abandoned dog or feral cat is no more deserving of a "better life" than the one who enjoyed a personal relationship w/a human.

    God's miracle is found in living, moving, sentient forms; whether they ever relate to a human being. There is no less intricacy and delicacy in the physical being of a lion than there is of a German Shepherd or Rag Doll cat...We are the ones who drew the division...this is my personal understanding.

    In short; if WE are given 'life ever after,' so are God's other creatures.

    I hold on to the hope and desire that I see all my beloved companion animals again...and I am glad that you believe we do...this is such a sweet expectation.

    Very compelling and thought provoking hub, agility; I hope I have not offended but, my HOPE is that all living, sentient beings in sea, earth and air, have the gift of a wondrous future.

  • wetnosedogs profile image


    7 years ago from Alabama

    This is a wonderful thought. And I love the pictures of those "bad" dogs. Gotta love them.


This website uses cookies

As a user in the EEA, your approval is needed on a few things. To provide a better website experience, uses cookies (and other similar technologies) and may collect, process, and share personal data. Please choose which areas of our service you consent to our doing so.

For more information on managing or withdrawing consents and how we handle data, visit our Privacy Policy at:

Show Details
HubPages Device IDThis is used to identify particular browsers or devices when the access the service, and is used for security reasons.
LoginThis is necessary to sign in to the HubPages Service.
Google RecaptchaThis is used to prevent bots and spam. (Privacy Policy)
AkismetThis is used to detect comment spam. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide data on traffic to our website, all personally identifyable data is anonymized. (Privacy Policy)
HubPages Traffic PixelThis is used to collect data on traffic to articles and other pages on our site. Unless you are signed in to a HubPages account, all personally identifiable information is anonymized.
Amazon Web ServicesThis is a cloud services platform that we used to host our service. (Privacy Policy)
CloudflareThis is a cloud CDN service that we use to efficiently deliver files required for our service to operate such as javascript, cascading style sheets, images, and videos. (Privacy Policy)
Google Hosted LibrariesJavascript software libraries such as jQuery are loaded at endpoints on the or domains, for performance and efficiency reasons. (Privacy Policy)
Google Custom SearchThis is feature allows you to search the site. (Privacy Policy)
Google MapsSome articles have Google Maps embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
Google ChartsThis is used to display charts and graphs on articles and the author center. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSense Host APIThis service allows you to sign up for or associate a Google AdSense account with HubPages, so that you can earn money from ads on your articles. No data is shared unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Google YouTubeSome articles have YouTube videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
VimeoSome articles have Vimeo videos embedded in them. (Privacy Policy)
PaypalThis is used for a registered author who enrolls in the HubPages Earnings program and requests to be paid via PayPal. No data is shared with Paypal unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook LoginYou can use this to streamline signing up for, or signing in to your Hubpages account. No data is shared with Facebook unless you engage with this feature. (Privacy Policy)
MavenThis supports the Maven widget and search functionality. (Privacy Policy)
Google AdSenseThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Google DoubleClickGoogle provides ad serving technology and runs an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Index ExchangeThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
SovrnThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Facebook AdsThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Unified Ad MarketplaceThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
AppNexusThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
OpenxThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Rubicon ProjectThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
TripleLiftThis is an ad network. (Privacy Policy)
Say MediaWe partner with Say Media to deliver ad campaigns on our sites. (Privacy Policy)
Remarketing PixelsWe may use remarketing pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to advertise the HubPages Service to people that have visited our sites.
Conversion Tracking PixelsWe may use conversion tracking pixels from advertising networks such as Google AdWords, Bing Ads, and Facebook in order to identify when an advertisement has successfully resulted in the desired action, such as signing up for the HubPages Service or publishing an article on the HubPages Service.
Author Google AnalyticsThis is used to provide traffic data and reports to the authors of articles on the HubPages Service. (Privacy Policy)
ComscoreComScore is a media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers. Non-consent will result in ComScore only processing obfuscated personal data. (Privacy Policy)
Amazon Tracking PixelSome articles display amazon products as part of the Amazon Affiliate program, this pixel provides traffic statistics for those products (Privacy Policy)
ClickscoThis is a data management platform studying reader behavior (Privacy Policy)