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What Does a Dwarf Rabbit Need?

I have trained and worked in animal care as well as in career advising. I live in Lancashire, UK.

Blue-eyed white Netherland dwarf rabbit

Blue-eyed white Netherland dwarf rabbit

Caring for a Dwarf Bunny

In the UK, the rabbit is the third most common animal to be handed in to rehoming centres, which indicates that a lot of people don’t think long enough before getting one. They are usually handed in because an owner or the owner’s child has got bored of them, or the rabbit got bigger than expected and wasn’t as easy to handle as when it was a cute baby bunny.

Crucially, many people don’t realise that rabbits can live 12 years or more and 6–10 years is usual, so they are not short-term pets. Because you’re reading this, you are giving yourself a head start and are more likely to come to a well-considered decision as to whether you can care for a dwarf rabbit properly at the moment. If you decide to get a dwarf rabbit, please consider re-homing one (or two) from a rescue centre.

Rabbit Housing

First, decide whether you want your rabbit to live indoors as a house rabbit or in an outbuilding or outdoors. Rabbits can be housetrained, and keeping rabbits as house pets has become more popular, but they are hardy too, so outside is fine provided there is a snug and dry bed area.

Indoor Rabbit Housing

Indoor rabbits are usually kept in a cage with a plastic base as this is easily cleaned. If the rabbit is going to spend at least four hours free to roam around the house each day, an indoor cage four times the rabbit’s body length and tall enough for it to sit up on its back legs, will be adequate.

The British Rabbit Council's minimum cage or hutch length recommendation is that the cage should allow a rabbit to do at least three consecutive hops, which works out at about four times the rabbit's length. The average length of a dwarf rabbit is 8 inches, so this means a minimum cage size of 40 inches long, 20 inches wide and 12 inches high to accommodate a dwarf rabbit sitting up on its haunches.

If your pet dwarf rabbit is going to spend an hour or less out of its accommodation each day, a larger cage or a run will be appreciated. However, I have kept mine indoors on the floor of a 5-ft indoor aviary with rubber matting to protect the floor.

Outdoor housing for dwarf rabbits: A shed with rabbit run attached.

Outdoor housing for dwarf rabbits: A shed with rabbit run attached.

A section of the shed has been partitioned off to give a spacious bed area for a dwarf rabbit.

A section of the shed has been partitioned off to give a spacious bed area for a dwarf rabbit.

Outdoor Dwarf Rabbit Housing

Outdoor rabbits tend to have to spend more time in their housing than indoor rabbits, and because they are also exposed to the weather, more thought must go into providing a suitable house for them. The rabbit hutch (usually 3 or 4 ft long) is the traditional outdoor rabbit house, but it’s not surprising that many people found that a rabbit in a hutch was a dull pet—there isn’t a lot for a rabbit to do in a hutch.

If you choose a hutch it either needs to be large—4 ft long or two-storied and/or have a permanent run attached on some paving stones or hard standing. Then you might have a separate movable run which the rabbit can go into out on the grass or a secure area of garden for it to run around in sometimes.

I've found that a small shed, with an area sectioned off for rabbit supplies and an area for the rabbit with a pop hole out to an attached run, works very well. My setup is pictured below.

Rabbit Bedding

Whether indoors or out, you will need some wood shavings for the base of the rabbit's cage of hutch and straw and or hay for bedding and munching on. Most dwarf rabbits choose a corner of the cage to urinate and do most of their droppings in so you can put a plastic litter tray in that spot with shaving in to make cleaning out easier.

A Marten Sable Netherland Dwarf Rabbit: Your dwarf rabbit will enjoy having access to a secure grassed area or run.

A Marten Sable Netherland Dwarf Rabbit: Your dwarf rabbit will enjoy having access to a secure grassed area or run.

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Read More From Pethelpful

Cold Weather Tip

Only fill a water bottle 3/4 full in cold weather because water expands when it turns to ice, and if the bottle is full and it freezes, it might crack.


Your rabbit must have access to water either in a heavy bowl which it can’t tip up or a pet water bottle. If the water bottle is freezing up in a cold spell, have two water bottles so that one is inside defrosting and one is out with the rabbit. In freezing conditions, swap the bottles at least twice a day.

Plants Which Are Harmful for Rabbits

  • Anemones
  • Bluebells
  • Buttercup
  • Elder
  • Feverfew
  • Ivy
  • Lobelia
  • Poppies
  • Spurge
  • Tomato leaves
  • Most evergreen trees or shrubs
A Himalayan Netherland Dwarf Rabbit: A dwarf rabbit's cage or hutch should be tall enough to allow it to sit up on its hind legs

A Himalayan Netherland Dwarf Rabbit: A dwarf rabbit's cage or hutch should be tall enough to allow it to sit up on its hind legs

Dwarf Rabbit Food

Traditional rabbit food is muesli like with grains, sweet corn, split peas and a ‘biscuit’ element. However, rabbits can be selective eaters and may reject bits and not get the nutrition they need, so a pelleted food—although it seems dull to us—is ideal for giving your rabbit the nutrients it needs.

  • Hay: rabbits need a high-fibre diet, so good quality hay is essential to keep their digestive system in good shape. Chewing hay also helps wear their teeth down.
  • Greens: If your rabbit has access to grass it will enjoy munching on that, otherwise a small amount of cabbage, a few dandelion leaves, some chickweed or some broccoli will usually go down well. Dandelions in quantity can be a diuretic, so don’t be overly generous with them.
  • Fruit and root veg: these should only form a tiny part of your rabbit’s diet and can be omitted altogether. A rabbit’s digestive system is made for a high fibre, low sugar diet so, despite Bugs Bunny’s well-known carrot addiction, the vegetable is not ideal for a rabbit.

Dwarf Rabbit Health

  • Vaccinations: There are two fatal diseases which your dwarf rabbit should be vaccinated against, particularly if living outside in a rural area; Myxomatosis which needs a booster vaccination once or twice a year depending on the level of Myxomatosis in your area and Viral Hemorrhagic Disease, aka VHD, which requires an annual booster.
  • Maggot infestations: especially in the summer, you need to pick up your rabbit, turn it over and check its rear end for soiling. Any rabbit poo which gets stuck to its bottom is a magnet for bluebottle flies to lay eggs in. The maggots will hatch and start eating your rabbit and kill it in as little as two days.
  • Coprophagy (poo eating): not a disease, but a natural function—rabbits produce two kinds of poo, the black round pellets which you will see in the hutch and a soft, mucusy, moist pellet which it usually eats as it poos it out. This sounds gross but is an essential part of the digestive process for the rabbit allowing it to digest more protein from its diet by processing its food twice.

Keeping Your Dwarf Rabbit Happy

With the possible exception of house rabbits, your pet rabbit will spend most of its time without your company. Rabbits are sociable animals and would really appreciate more company than you are able to give.

A rabbit’s ideal companion is another rabbit. As recently as the late 1990s, vets were wary of neutering rabbits because the anaesthetics available made anaesthetising rabbits a particularly risky process. Modern anaesthetics mean that neutering rabbits is now common practice, and a male and female pair of neutered rabbits will usually get on very well together.

The next best option is a pair of female rabbits who are also likely to be compatible, especially if introduced when young. A pair of neutered males are more likely to fight with each other, although they can sometimes be kept together successfully. I kept a couple of neutered males in a group of 10 females in an 8-ft by 24-ft pen, and they all got on well.

Two rabbits only need slightly more space than one rabbit, and cost wise can even work out cheaper because you are more likely to buy supplies in bulk. For example, you could buy a proper bale of hay from an agricultural feed store rather than lots of expensive tiny bales from a pet shop.

As a comparison, I can get a bale of hay for £4.00, and it would last one rabbit at least six months working out at £8.00/rabbit/year or £16 for two rabbits. A £2.00 pet shop bale lasts one rabbit two weeks, working out at £48/rabbit/year.

Most rabbits enjoy having company of their own kind.

Most rabbits enjoy having company of their own kind.

Can Rabbits and Guinea Pigs Live Together?

This can work, but not everyone would recommend it. It’s worth thinking about it from the guinea pig’s point of view. Although weight-wise, guinea pigs are a match for a dwarf rabbit, rabbits are more agile and have powerful hind legs made for kicking.

Guinea pigs are quite fast but not agile and have rather feeble legs. They are easily damaged by a rabbit which is feeling grumpy or even by a startled friendly rabbit which runs over the guinea pig by mistake.

Toys for Dwarf Rabbits

Dwarf rabbits will enjoy some natural toys, a branch or log to gnaw on, for example. Ash, willow and apple are all safe woods for your rabbit. They are agile, so they will happily access platforms via ramps or even without ramps; if you have a large enough pen, you could provide a digging box which some rabbits really enjoy making use of. Tunnels are popular with most rabbits, and it is easier to find tunnels which suit the size of dwarf rabbits than to find tunnels big enough for the giant rabbit breeds.

They will enjoy making use of a ball which dispenses food as they nudge it along, or you could use other types of puzzle food dispensers. You can get them especially for rabbits or but I have also used ones designed for dogs. (There’s often little difference other than the packaging!) They may make use of other balls or toys which they can throw around—but don’t clutter the hutch too much with them.

Dwarf Rabbit Breeds

There are two breeds of rabbit small enough to be considered dwarf.

  • The Netherland Dwarf Rabbit: a compact rabbit with short ears, weighing under 2 1/2 lbs. It comes in a wide range of colours, including Himalayan, marten sable, black, white with blue eyes or albino (white) with pink eyes, agouti, tortoiseshell, chinchilla and orange.
  • The Polish Rabbit: a finer boned rabbit then the Netherland dwarf with a slightly smaller head and narrower shoulders. It should weigh under 2 1/2 lbs according to the British Rabbit Council's standards but can weigh up to 3 1/2 lbs under American Rabbit Breeders' standards. It is available in much the same range of colours as the Netherland Dwarf.

As interest in smaller animals has grown, rabbit breeders have actively sought to breed smaller versions of some of the traditional breeds such as the Rex rabbit and Dwarf lop (note that the dwarf in dwarf lop relates to ear size, not body size. So the Miniature Rex and the Miniature Lop are now officially recognised breeds. However, they are larger than the Polish rabbit and Netherland Dwarf.

  • Miniature Lop: Mini lops should weigh less ten 3 1/2 lbs and have a short coat. There are two breeds with a longer coat, the Miniature Lion Lop and the Miniature Cashmere Lop.
  • Miniature Rex and Miniature Broken Rex: should weigh around 4 lbs. Rex rabbits have a luxurious, very short, velvet-like coat.
  • Miniature Satin: an ivory-coloured rabbit with a glossy sheen to the coat. The mini satin should weigh around 4 1/2 lbs.

Find Rabbit Rescues and Rabbit Breeders Near You

This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. It is not meant to substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, or formal and individualized advice from a veterinary medical professional. Animals exhibiting signs and symptoms of distress should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.


Jessica on June 23, 2020:

Sorry but I disagree on some of this advice and worry about impressionible people taking this article seriously

Samuel on April 22, 2018:

how can I cure the diseases eating up my rabbit's ear's and nose

Fffv on March 16, 2018:

I LOVE RABBITS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Maria fox on January 01, 2018:

Need to build rabbit run for three dwarf rabbits, so I can let. Them out for a few hours, living in South Africa

Tabitha on December 30, 2017:

thank u I finally got my bunny to eat and drink

west on November 12, 2015:

Bunnies r cute luv your pix ty for giving me all this helpful info!!!!

rebecca rothery on November 12, 2014:

Really interesting. My dwarf has just lost her female friend of four years ( a mini lop) i wasn't going to get her a new friend but am know re thinking. I have just bought an indoor cage for winter due to the harsh weather due in aberdeenshire.

Lollipop7 on July 05, 2014:

This helped me so much! I'm planning on getting a dwarf, but I got so confused. One person said 18 x 14. The next said I needed a dog cage! A 40 x 20 x 12 cage sounds perfect! I found one online that was 37 x 19 x 20 and I was wondering if a few inches made a difference (you can se how inexperienced I am-first timer).

Thiago on August 27, 2013:

I have to convey my adoitarimn for your generosity giving support to visitors who actually need guidance on this important theme. Your personal commitment to getting the solution around had been astonishingly functional and has always permitted individuals much like me to realize their aims. Your personal insightful guidelines implies a lot to me and much more to my colleagues. Many thanks; from all of us.

Gabriela on August 16, 2013:

You are such a good friend! Care paecagks are the absolute best, and yours to Mary is so thoughtful. She'll love it, I'm sure! I love your idea of wrapping the whole box in paper, so fun!

Melanie hernandez on January 25, 2013:

I all ready getting my felmale baby rabbit from the mil box and she,s going to be very cute .

lily on September 15, 2012:

great pictures:) I love Bunny's!!!!

belleart from Ireland on August 07, 2012:

brilliant hub, so many people don't understand the amount of love and attention bunnies need. beautiful pictures :)

Nettlemere (author) from Burnley, Lancashire, UK on July 17, 2012:

Thank you for your interesting comment vespawolf, I knew about guinea pig being on the menu in Peru, but it hadn't crossed my mind there would be rabbits there too - they don't seem exotic enough for South America!

Vespa Woolf from Peru, South America on July 15, 2012:

We had a dwarf bunny when I was a child. Unfortunately, here in Peru they often dine on rabbit! And guinea pigs and rabbits, which are both raised for food, are often kept together. Your bunny hutches look comfortable and roomy. I had no idea that bunnies eat their poo! There's a wealth of information here. Voted up and shared!

purnimamoh1982 on June 13, 2012:

I agree with you. Most rabbits enjoy company of their own kind. I have shared some of my experiences of keeping two rabbits at home. Please visit my hub

molmin on June 04, 2012:

This took me back to being a child - I think rabbits are such lovely pets for children and I remember mine very fondly. Really good practical advice. Voted up and interesting.

Nettlemere (author) from Burnley, Lancashire, UK on May 29, 2012:

Thank you Jaye - I've always had a fondness for rabbits. As for the poo eating - all I shall say is at least it's a pleasanter sort of poo then cat poo (which one of my dogs will root out at any given opportunity!)

Thank you for reading Marcy - they do make endearing pets when they're not abandoned to boring hutch life all the time.

And thank you for your vote aviannovice, I'm really pleased you liked it.

Deb Hirt from Stillwater, OK on May 27, 2012:

Voted awesome, useful, and up. This is great information for anyone, where or not one wants a rabbit. I enjoyed it very much.

Marcy Goodfleisch from Planet Earth on May 27, 2012:

Awww - you sure have some cute bunnies! Rabbits are so sweet, and everyone I know who's had them loves them as pets. Thanks for this informative article!

Jaye Denman from Deep South, USA on May 27, 2012:

Very interesting hub and enjoyed the photos. They are adorable bundles of fur.

I'll stick with my dog, however; you lost me as a potential dwarf rabbit "pet parent" with the "poo eating!"

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