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How to Properly House and Care for Pet Box Turtles

I have been writing online articles for more than 10 years and enjoy sharing my knowledge of box turtles.

Box turtles are long-lived pets that require detailed care. Learn more about housing, feeding, and handling these turtles.

Box turtles are long-lived pets that require detailed care. Learn more about housing, feeding, and handling these turtles.

A Box Turtle Is a Lifelong Commitment!

Box turtles are protected. When acquiring a box turtle, be sure to go to a responsible breeder who deals only in captive-bred turtles. Do not collect wild turtles or buy from those who do. Never buy on an impulse. Think your purchase through: a box turtle can live for 125 years!

That said, a box turtle makes a lovely, lifelong pet when properly cared for. This article is intended to introduce you to the basics of box turtle care. There are many good books available at the library and at pet stores that you should also check out, but this article will get you started.


Outdoors is the best habitat for your box turtle, unless pesticides are used in or near your yard. If so, you must keep it indoors.

How to Create a Pen for Your Turtle

A pen built of sturdy wire fencing under a tree is ideal. You should use wire fencing with openings no more that 1" x 2". It doesn't have to be very tall. Two feet high is more than enough. You can use wood or metal stakes to support it. Fasten the fence wire with zip ties to avoid sharp edges. The fence should be sunk at least 3" all the way around (to prevent escapes), and it helps to brace the fence line inside and out with bricks, rocks, or landscape timbers. The floor of the pen should be covered with soft topsoil and leaves at least 3" deep.

The pen must be secure. And you must never release your box turtle into the wild or into your (not secured) backyard! If a box turtle is not habituated to its surroundings, it will spend the rest of its life trying to get back to the place where it was born.

Unfortunately, its life will most likely be cut short by predators or traffic if this happens. It takes three years for a box turtle to become habituated to its new home. (Remember, a box turtle can live to be 125 years old!)

Alternative: Wading Pool

If you are not able to build a pen, a child's wading pool with drainage holes punched or drilled in the bottom and a 3" layer of topsoil and leaves also makes a good outdoor pen.

Shade Is Essential

No matter which you choose, it is very important to provide shade all day long. The turtle should be able to sun if it wants to, but it should always be able to get out of the sun and into deep shade provided by a bush or tree.

Requirements for an Indoor Enclosure

If you must keep your box turtle indoors, it is important to provide adequate space, ventilation, light, and a substrate with good drainage. A 10-gallon aquarium is not enough! A larger aquarium (one that provides 6 to 9 square feet of floor space) is alright; however, I have found that aquariums are difficult to keep clean.

The best indoor habitat for a box turtle is the largest semi-transparent plastic tote available. These are inexpensive, sturdy, and easy to find at most stores. If you use the lid, be sure to cut or drill ventilation holes in it to avoid condensation. It is a good idea to have two totes on hand so that you can simply transfer the turtle from one to the other at cleaning time. This not absolutely necessary, but it is handy.

Outdoor Substrate

Outdoor substrate should be clean topsoil and leaves.

For a Pen

In a large-enough pen, you will not need to worry about cleaning. If you have the right number of turtles for the size of your pen, and you don't overfeed, nature will do the cleaning. You will just need to supplement the leaves as they decompose, so that your turtle will always have something to dig and hide in and will be able to hibernate successfully through the winter.

For a Wading Pool

In a wading pool, you will need to clean and replace both topsoil and leaves as they become soiled. Your turtle will not be able to hibernate in a wading pool because it will not be able to dig down deep enough to keep from freezing. In this case, you will need to bring your pet indoors before the first freeze. Keep it in until all danger of frost has passed.

Indoor Substrate

The best indoor substrate I have found is plain rabbit pellets. You can buy a big bag of this very inexpensively at a feed store. It is easy to keep this substrate clean by scooping out soiled areas with a kitty litter scooper and stirring the substrate daily to keep it aired. It should be changed about once a week or more often if soiled. Keep about 2" of pellets over the entire floor of the habitat.

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You can use commercial substrates like wood chips or reptile substrate. Follow the package directions. Do not use pine or cedar chips or any other wood chip with a strong, resiny smell. This is very bad for turtle lungs. Also, avoid Bed-a-Beast. Reptiles have been known to eat it and die from bowel impaction.

This is a Carolina Three Toed Box Turtle

This is a Carolina Three Toed Box Turtle


Contrary to popular belief, box turtles do NOT need to be hot and dry. If your box turtle is outside, the soil in its enclosure should be very slightly moist. Your turtle should always be able to get into deep shade to cool off.

If your box turtle is inside, and your home is a comfortable temperature, (70–80 degrees, that is!) your box turtle will be comfortable. If you keep your home colder than that, it is a good idea to give your box turtle a heat rock or a heat lamp to use optionally. The turtle should always be able to get away from the heat if it wants to.


Your box turtle needs sunlight for good energy, a strong shell, and healthy skin and scales. You can provide a UV lamp and/or you can place your turtle's enclosure near a window so that the turtle gets partial sun for 2–6 hours a day.

Again, the turtle must be able to choose whether or not to be in the sun. You should never place the habitat in such a way that the whole enclosure is in direct sun. The turtle should always be able to get out of the sun if it needs to.

Clean Water

Your box turtle needs clean water at all times for drinking and soaking. Its water dish should be big enough for the whole turtle to get in and soak comfortably. It should be at least 2" deep. The more turtles you have, the bigger the dish should be. The dish should be heavy, so the turtle(s) cannot tip it over. Some good dishes include:

  • glass pie pans
  • glass or ceramic casserole dishes
  • clay plant saucers
  • dishes specially made for this purpose

If you find that the dish is too slippery, and your turtle has trouble getting out, you can put a flat rock or terra cotta tile on the bottom of the dish to give it some traction.

Water Maintenance

The water should be changed at least once a day. It is a good idea to keep a jug filled with water and let it sit, open, so that the chemicals in the water evaporate and the water is room temperature when you fill the dish. You can also use dechlorinator for fish water, if you want. Never use water that is too hot or too cold.

Strawberries are a box turtle's favorite food, but never overdo it with any single food. Variety helps insure nutritional balance.

Strawberries are a box turtle's favorite food, but never overdo it with any single food. Variety helps insure nutritional balance.

Feeding: What Do Box Turtles Eat?

Box turtles are omnivores. They eat meat, fruits, and vegetables. You can feed your turtle a commercially prepared turtle food, but it is best not to limit its diet to ANY one food. Feed a variety. Here are some favorites:

  • Bait worms (available at any bait store). Check them before you buy them. They should be lively and mold-free. Mealworms, crickets, wax worms (available at pet stores). Strawberries, bananas, peaches, pears, plums, almost any fruit; citrus does not seem to be a favorite.
  • Canned fruit is okay, but it should be rinsed if it is packed in syrup.
  • Canned dog or cat food, dry dog, or cat food soaked in warm water (No more than twice a week.)
  • Green, leafy vegetables like kale, spinach, Romaine lettuce, cabbage, chopped very small.

Do Not Feed Iceberg Lettuce

Iceberg lettuce has no nutrition, but turtles love it. They can become addicted to it, refuse to eat anything else, and starve to death eating it.

How Much Should I Feed My Turtle?

Feed a total of a heaping tablespoon or two of foods per turtle daily. One or two earthworms or other live foods count as meat. Amounts really depend on the size and appetite of the turtle. Use your best judgment, and consult books, the internet, your pet store, or me, if you need to.

Be sure to vary the diet: Feed one or two foods one day and one or two different foods the next. By doing this, you will be sure your turtle is getting a range of vitamins and minerals. You can also add a vitamin/mineral supplement (available at pet stores) sprinkled over the food.

The Importance of Calcium

Calcium is a very necessary nutrient for turtles. They need it for strong shells and bones. Oyster shell calcium can be bought inexpensively, by the pound, at most feed stores. You can also use grit that is made for caged birds and/or provide a cuttlebone for your turtle to chomp on. These also help keep the turtle's beak pruned. This is important as the turtle cannot eat properly if its beak overgrows. I use the oyster shell calcium. I just sprinkle it around the ground in the enclosures. It can also be put in a dish or sprinkled over the food.


A box turtle needs very little in the way of accessories, but the following things are good to have.

Hiding Place

Box turtles appreciate a good hiding place! A broken flower pot makes a good hiding place, or a whole flower pot partially buried in the substrate. A hollow log is good if you have one handy! Use your imagination on this. Just bear in mind that whatever you use, it should be easy to clean, free of sharp edges, and easy for the turtle to crawl under. Do be sure to provide a hiding place. Your turtle will be much happier.

Food Dishes

Food dishes are also important. A box turtle food dish should be as flat as possible. If it has any kind of lip at all, the turtle will tip it up when it tries to eat. Terra cotta tiles make good food dishes. They can be bought for a few cents at a home improvement store. Their rough surface helps keep the turtle's beak pruned. Buy two or three, so you can just prepare the turtle's food on one and trade it easily with the one in use. This way you will always have a clean food dish available.


Box turtles don't like a lot of handling, but if you are always quiet and gentle around your turtle, it will learn to trust you. Feed at the same time, in the same place in the enclosure every day, and soon you will find your box turtle waiting for you at feeding time. Sometimes they like to take tidbits from your hand or a spoon; however, it is not a good idea to encourage this. Box turtle bites hurt! It is also better for the turtle to eat from its dish, than to become "spoon dependent." This makes feeding easier for you, too.

If you keep your turtle indoors, it will enjoy outings on nice days. Be sure to stay with your turtle, and keep your eye on it every single minute! Turtles are actually quite fast, and they can disappear in a flash! Keep your turtle away from areas where dogs or other animals may have soiled the ground.

Wash Your Hands After Touching Your Turtle

As with all reptiles, be sure to wash your hands after you handle your turtle. Wash turtle dishes separately from human dishes. Even healthy turtles can carry germs that people don't want!

Supply List

Here's a quick review of what you'll need for your pet.


Building materials for a pen:

  • Fence wire
  • Stakes: Wood or metal. Stakes for an electric fence are fine.
  • Zip ties.
  • 2–3 bags of topsoil. If in doubt, tell the clerk at the garden center how big your pen is and that you want the topsoil to be at least 3" deep. They can help you decide how much to buy.


  • Plastic wading pool (drill holes in the bottom).
  • 2–3 bags of topsoil.


  • Large plastic semi-transparent tote (holes drilled in the top, if used).
  • Rabbit pellets or commercial substrate.
  • Kitty litter scoop.

Light, Heat, and Accessories

  • Heat rock and/or UV light (optional).
  • Food dishes or terra cotta tiles.
  • Soaking dish.
  • Hide-out.

Food and Supplements

  • A variety of fruits and vegetables.*
  • Live and non-live meat sources.
  • Oyster shell calcium, grit, or cuttlebone.
  • Vitamin and mineral supplement.

This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. It is not meant to substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, or formal and individualized advice from a veterinary medical professional. Animals exhibiting signs and symptoms of distress should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.

© 2015 justmesuzanne


justmesuzanne (author) from Texas on March 24, 2020:

Thanks, Peggy! Yes, there are stories of pet box turtles handed down from one generation to another. :)

Peggy Woods from Houston, Texas on March 20, 2020:

I had no idea that box turtles could live that long! It sounds like you would have to make provisions for it in your will so that it gets good care after you die. I will never own one, but this is all useful information to know.

justmesuzanne (author) from Texas on August 02, 2019:

I have never had any problem with the pens that I build.

Big son on July 16, 2019:

This is a good article. The only thing i have found wrong with it is that you should never build you box turtle pin out of wire because they can easily climb fence, so if you do build one out of fence then make sure it has a dome top to it,

Shyron E Shenko from Texas on August 04, 2016:

Suzanne, this is an interesting and amazing hub. I would not begin to raise a box turtle unless it is already 120 years old.

I truly enjoyed reading this.

Blessings and hugs dear friend.

justmesuzanne (author) from Texas on May 19, 2015:

Thanks! I have a yard full of them, and I'm considering moving! I'm not sure what I'll do. :/

FlourishAnyway from USA on May 19, 2015:

125 years? OMG! Anything with a life span that long I know is off my list. This was such an interesting hub, Suzanne. I learned a lot. I will never have one of these as a pet, but I do value them as sweet creatures.

justmesuzanne (author) from Texas on May 18, 2015:

Thank you! Tortoises and box turtles are not the same, but quite a bit of the information can be generalized. Your friend should also get a good manual on tortoise care.

Akriti Mattu from Shimla, India on May 18, 2015:

Hey thanks for writing this hub.My friend just got a tortoise as a pet. Will make her read your informative hub :)

justmesuzanne (author) from Texas on May 15, 2015:

Thank you for your kind comments! This article isn't really even finished yet! I intend to add some photos, videos, products and so on. I just haven't had time. I have quite a bit of content that I need to post, and I just decided to start tossing it out there and then come back to it to finalize it. Glad you like it so far! :D

torrilynn on May 13, 2015:

I like turtles. I think that they are unique and kind of cool. thanks for this informative and useful hub on caring for turtles.

poetryman6969 on May 13, 2015:

Turtles eat worms? I missed the memo. I would have killed them by feeding them only lettuce. There is a belief amongst some that we crave what need but that is clearly not always the case in fact when I see what addiction does I wonder if it is ever the case?

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