James' main interests are birding (though he enjoys watching all wildlife) and writing.
Like millions of others, I love to take the chance to wile a weekend afternoon away in our local park. I’m fortunate that my local green space has a rather spacious and beautiful lake that creates a haven for a wide range of species of wildfowl.
Some of my earliest childhood memories are trotting down the path with my mom, dad, or grandparents; stopping at the edge of the lake; and waiting for an excited avian crowd to congregate in the water, literally a couple of feet away from you. Your parent or grandparent would hand you the plastic bag containing a few spare slices of white bread.
Your face would light up like a star as you eagerly broke off pieces of bread and chucked them at the swelling crowd ahead of you. You’d smile and laugh as you witnessed ducks, geese, and swans of all shapes and sizes shove, hustle, and peck at each other just so they can compete for a tiny morsel. It brought joy to me then, and it brings a smile to my face when I see children feeding the ducks today because it always takes me back to when I was in their shoes.
Is It Okay to Feed Wild Ducks and Geese?
All of us who either take or took pleasure in feeding the ducks may have been committing a grave error. It turns out that eating an excess of processed ingredients can have a harmful effect on birds, including an issue called angel wing.
The Causes and Effects of Angel Wing
Angel wing, also known as slipped or crooked wing, is a condition that causes the last joint of the wing to twist, thus resulting in the primary or flight feathers sticking out rather than lying smoothly against the body as is normal.
The primary cause is thought to be a nutritional problem; the problem usually begins when the bird is still growing from an immature bird to fully adult. If it is given excess, poor feed during this time, it can cause the bird to fatten up and grow too rapidly, resulting in one or more of the wing joints becoming deformed, resulting in angel wing.
One other major factor is the type of food given to the wildfowl. Most people who feed the wildfowl in the park give them white bread. The problem with white bread is that it causes a deficiency in vitamin E, which is found in high levels in the bird’s natural diet, so that’s things like leaves, seeds, and aquatic plants.
I must point out that angel wing does not affect the general health of the bird, and it does not leave it at risk from other health issues, but it does leave them looking very shabby. But most importantly, angel wing leaves them totally unable to fly. Of course, it is possible that in a modern suburban park with a large lake, with an island situated in the middle, far enough away from the bank to prevent even the most determined predator from swimming across for a bird afflicted with angel wing to live quite comfortably and they do.
Food is never a problem because even when natural food becomes scarce, there is always the constant stream of human food to rely upon. But the fundamental fact remains that the bird cannot fly, so if a predator like a fox or an overexcited dog should appear, then it would have little chance to escape.
What Should You Feed Ducks and Geese Instead of White Bread
Below is a list of alternative food you can take the next time you visit the park:
- Wild bird seed and other grains like corn, wheat, and barley
- Specialist wildfowl feed (can be bought from places like garden centers or pet shops)
- Vegetable peelings or trimmings (chopped)
- Grapes cut in half
- Frozen peas that have been defrosted
- Earthworms or mealworms
7 Reasons Not to Feed Bread to Wildfowl
There are also other reasons why it can be bad to feed ducks bread of any kind on a regular basis.
1. It can cause malnutrition.
Firstly, when the birds are tiny ducklings or goslings etc., they must receive adequate nutrition for proper growth and development. Whilst the problem with immature and adult birds is fattening up, growing too quickly, and developing angel wing, the opposite is the case with juveniles, as the deficiency in vitamin E can cause malnutrition.
2. It prevents ducks from learning how to forage.
Furthermore, ducks, in general, will always try to seek out the easiest possible food source, so if that means human handouts, the ducklings will find it much harder to forage natural foods, thus leaving them at a disadvantage.
3. There's overcrowding.
If the wildfowl living on a body of water such as a pond or lake have regular access to an easy food source, the population will increase rapidly; more birds will lay bigger clutches of eggs. In time, it would become much more difficult for birds to forage for healthier food and establish territories; as a result, competition over territory will become far more aggressive as is normal, even resulting in death.
4. It causes pollution.
The next is pollution, a surprising one you may think for such an innocent and noble activity. But bear with me on this one. There are often times when wildfowl are given too much bread at one time; when this happens, it will be left uneaten. When the bread is left, it, of course, eventually goes soggy and mouldy.
If left on the ground, it can omit horrible and noxious orders, and when left in water, it can promote the growth of higher concentrations of algae, which leads to waterways potentially becoming blocked, thus concentrating the amount of pollution seeping into the water, potentially it could decimate the ecosystem in the near vicinity of the problem.
5. Feeding wildfowl attracts pests.
Pest attraction is a more obvious problem because everyone knows what happens when you leave food rubbish on the ground for any length of time; it attracts your regular cast of pests such as rats, mice, and insects. Pests like these can pass on lethal diseases to the wildfowl and to humans, as we know when we look back in history.
6. It causes disease.
The next problem is disease; when the birds are exposed to a diet rich in carbohydrates, they defecate more than usual, and all bird faeces harbour potentially harmful bacteria, responsible for a number of avian-related diseases such as avian botulism, which is a form of avian food poisoning. Mouldy bread can also cause a disease known as aspergillosis, a fatal lung affection that can eradicate entire wildfowl flocks.
7. Feeding geese can cause aggressive behavior.
The final problem is another rather obscure one. Have you ever visited the park and encountered that goose that seems to be more aggressive than the others? They are probably a domesticated greylag goose, known as an Embden goose or farmyard goose; they are the goose that we all imagine—white all over apart from an orange bill, legs, and feet.
These birds tend to act more aggressively towards their contemporaries; they eventually lose their fear of humans and may even start acting aggressively towards you in order to procure food. I suppose you can understand that sort of behaviour in a domesticated goose, but I have also witnessed such behaviour in Canada geese.
The problem lies with the fact that if the birds have regular access to handouts, they lose their natural fear of humans and become increasingly bold and aggressive. Furthermore, the loss of fear of humans can result in other unforeseen hazards, such as birds crossing a busy road, in order to reach a group of picnickers or perhaps another body of water with easily accessible food.
A similar phenomenon has occurred in various species of gull, particularly the herring gull, that fiend of a bird, normally responsible for the loss of a good sandwich or ice cream on the beach. Gulls, in general, are very intelligent and obtain a great portion of their food by stealing it from other sea birds; as humans began taking more holidays to the seaside, the gulls increasingly had access to a greater level of handouts, like the geese they lost their fear and became bolder and more aggressive towards us, affectively we, ourselves have become just another seabird to them, a viable target for the stealing of food.
What to Do With Old Bread (Instead of Feeding the Birds)
You may be reading this now and thinking, "What to do then with my leftover bread?" One option could be to start a compost pile in the garden in order to create natural fertiliser; it’s a great way to fertilise the soil for little or no cost. Bags of compost and peat can be expensive, and in order to fertilise a decent patch of ground, you have to buy at least three 70-litre bags. Your own compost pile gives you the opportunity to dispose of food leftovers in a responsible way, including that unwanted stale bread.
There are options to experiment with stale bread recipes, such as bread pudding or homemade dressing and stuffing, as well as using stale bread to create homemade croutons by toasting them, but I’m not sure many people would like the idea of eating stale bread. The best method, in my opinion, is simply to store the bread in the freezer; this allows it to last much longer than usual and prevents you from throwing any away at all.
So the next time you feel like taking a stroll to the lake in the park or want to do something fun with the kids, please be vigilant and please consider what you are feeding to the ducks; you may be doing them more harm than good.
This article is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge. It is not meant to substitute for diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, prescription, or formal and individualized advice from a veterinary medical professional. Animals exhibiting signs and symptoms of distress should be seen by a veterinarian immediately.
© 2012 James Kenny
J on March 04, 2020:
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Am I to believe that feeding them organic bread (with seeds) or organic crackers, moderately, once in a while is still actually bad though? I have geese in my neighborhood; the snippets in question are "processed" and "excess"... Where at a trafficked park, sure, go with pure seed...? However, vege peelings sounds like a good idea, too.
Dan on August 04, 2018:
Half right, half wrong. You encourage feeding natural foods, but this does nothing to dissuade aggressive behavior and migration cessation. These are also species considered so prolific that they are close to domesticated. Let us not pretend that all the mallards and Canada geese at the local park are wild species that will not have to interact with humans regularly. NOT feeding bread is really more of a tactic to keep the level of goose feces down more than anything else. Should we feed any wild animals at all? Probably not, but years of feeding did not create any massive issues, in fact, these species continue to thrive.
CALLAWAY. on February 18, 2017:
So informative! I am guilty of feeding bread too waterfowl for as long as I can remember. Once, when me and my family were at Myrtle beach, I fed ove an entire loaf of white bread to several geese and ducks. There was a swan that was just floating around in the middle of the pond, looking forlorn and with it,s wings all messed up. Looking back, I am sure that it had angel wing. Many people were feeding the birds at the pond and all of them were using bread!
James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on August 29, 2014:
Thank you very much girlpower :).
girlpower on August 29, 2014:
what a great hub, i never thought about if the bread crumbs would harm the ducks and geese. A good list of things we can give them, a halved grape, veggie clippings, wow what a great hub to share with others
James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on November 07, 2012:
Hi Bob, I'm glad that there are people out there who are really trying to discourage others from feeding wildfowl bread. Really bread is one of the most nutritionally deficient foods you can possibly eat, and indeed many humans are incapable of eating it because of its wheat and gluten content. You can get gluten free bread, but in the case of wildfowl, its best to feed them their natural diet. The only way to stop the pastime is through education. I don't think enough is being done at the moment to address the problem. Thanks for stopping by.
Bob Bamberg on November 07, 2012:
Sorry if I'm posting twice. I was almost finished when my cursor froze. When it worked again, the comment block was empty.
Good information! I wish I had known about the vitamin E problem. We owned a feed and grain store and always discouraged feeding bread to wild birds and waterfowl.
I was told that their digestive systems can't extract sufficient nutrition from bread. If I had known, we could have warned them about vitamin E, too.
In my area feeding ducks and geese is discouraged and, in some communities, outlawed because their waste pollutes water and land. But as you stated, it's an extremely popular pastime and around here, people will continue to "feed the ducks" in spite of local ordinances.
We never advertised food for waterfowl and gamebirds, but we sold corn and other grains, of course, including gamebird pellets, a complete and balanced ration.
If we knew people were feeding waterfowl, we discouraged bread and steered them towards corn, scratch feed or gamebird pellets. How's that for being noble and mercenary at the same time!
Enlightening read; voted up, useful, and interesting.
James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on November 06, 2012:
Thank you DrMark. I totally agree, most people just simply aren't aware that they may be harming ducks and other wildfowl out of a simple act of kindness.
Dr Mark from The Atlantic Rain Forest, Brazil on November 06, 2012:
Well presented article! I tweeted this and shared on hubpages. Everyone needs to be aware of this issue.
James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on October 22, 2012:
James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on March 16, 2012:
Thanks Dolores. The park near me is exactly the same, the council have put notices up, but most people just ignore them, and they end up moaning about the ground being covered in guano. Also, I've noticed that the white geese in particular are getting more aggressive towards people. I'm glad to have provided valuable advice, thanks for dropping by.
Dolores Monet from East Coast, United States on March 16, 2012:
We live near a lake where people love to feed bread to the Canada goose. It's a mess. The ground is covered with goose feces and you can't picnic there like you used to. Not only that, but the lake is where our local water comes from! Yuk!
Great hub and great advise.
James Kenny (author) from Birmingham, England on January 13, 2012:
Thanks for the feedback, I've been telling people about this for years, so its nice that I can inform a much wider audience here on Hubpages. Really enjoying being on here.
natures47friend from Sunny Art Deco Napier, New Zealand. on January 07, 2012:
Wow....I am guilty of feeding various breads including white to ducks, geese, gulls and whatever species present. That's shocking news. Voted up and interesting.